Bio-Impacts


      Below are articles about impacts on the biosphere (beyond human food).  They are arranged in 10 major groups: Diseases, Extinctions, Severe Declines, Range Shifts, Timing Changes, Forests, Corals, Other Ocean Life, Pests, and Misc.  "Forests" has a sub-group, but Forest Fire articles are on the No Water page.  Acid ocean effects on life are found here and on the Water page.


     Month and year follow each article's name.  PDF files are so marked, after month and date, some with authors noted.  Within sections, more recent files appear above older files.

Too Hot & Humid

     As Earth continues warming, more of it will become too hot and humid for humans to survive very long.  That portion now is very small - bits around the Persian Gulf on some summer afternoons - but it will grow.

     Heat stroke damages the brain & other organs.  It kills 10% of victims.  It often follows heat cramps, fainting, or heat exhaustion.  U.S. heat stroke rates were highest in Arizona (1.7 deaths per 100,000), Nevada (1.0) and Missouri (0.8).

     When conditions are too humid and hot, the body can no longer cool itself by sweating.  Heat stroke can follow quickly.

    Highest THI (95-100°F) at left is in S TX & E Baja.  THI 90-95°F in FL panhandle, SE of Yuma AZ & 40% of TX.  Some Category II (FL, some GA-AL-MS & AZ, most of TX), but no Category III (105-129°F) in the US this day.  Category III (THI 105-115°F) ocurred after noon in e.g., Baghdad, Manaus & Kolkata India.  Category IV prevailed on NW edge of Persian Gulf.

Are We Ready for the Deadly Heat Waves of the Future? 0418

It’s Not the Heat, It’s the Humidity - Really 0118 

How Much Heat Can the Body and Mind Take? 0917

Silent Killer - Sweltering Planet Braces for Deadly Heat Shocks 0917

This Is How Your World Could End - Too Hot for Humans 0917

Deadly Heat Waves Becoming More Common, due to Climate Change 0817 - European Comm., take #1

Weather Disasters to Impact 2 out of 3 Europeans by 2100, Study Says 0817 - European Comm., take #2

How Extreme Could Temperatures Become in Texas? 0817

Climate Change to Cause Humid Heat Waves Killing Even Healthy People 0817 - MIT lead author, take #2

Warming to Boost Deadly Humidity Levels across South Asia 0817 - MIT lead author, take #1

Climate Change Is Killing Us Right Now 0717

Australia Could Suffer from Droughts, Heat Waves as the Tropical Zone Expands 0717

Deadly Heat Waves Could Endanger 3/4 of Mankind by 2100, Up from 1/3 Now 0617

Extreme Heat Wave Days Already Hitting Poorer Nations More than Rich 0317

Why India Is Becoming a Drier, Hotter and Angrier Country 1116

Indian Salt Producers Cope with 48°C Heat 0916

By 2085, Most Cities Could Be Too Hot for the Summer Olympics 0816

Why It’s Hotter Nights, More Than Hotter Days, That Make Heat Waves Dangerous 0816

Soaring Temperatures Will Make It Too Hot to Work, Cost Over $2 Trillion by 2030 - 0716

Climate Change Is Making Farm Work More Dangerous than It Already Is 0716

Sweltering China Tries to Dole Out Subsidies for Working in High Heat 0716

As Temperatures Climb Across the USA, Workers Will Suffer 0716

Without Emissions Cuts, Summer Heat Will Get Even Deadlier 0616 - Africa is hit soonest, hardest.

Africa’s Most Vulnerable Face an Even Hotter Future 0516

Parts of India Ban Daytime Cooking after 100s Die from Heat Wave and Fire 0416

Deadly Heat Wave Is Shattering All-Time Records in Southeast Asia and India 0416

Rising Heat at Work Is Major New Climate Threat 0416

How Indians Are Coping with a Dangerously Hot Summer 0416

South Asian Workers in Gulf Fear Rising Temperature 1215

Heat Stress - the Next Global Public Health Crisis? 1115

Global Warming Could Make Hajj Impossible Later This Century 1015 - take 1

Intolerable, Unimaginable Heat Forecast for Persian Gulf 1015 - take 2

Australian Climate Turns Up Heat on Tennis Stars 0915

California Heat Puts Farm Workers at Risk 0915

Heat Waves Are on the Rise in Algeria, Due to Climate Change 0815

Surge In ‘Danger Days’ Just around the Corner 0815 
     Portland, ME, Flint, MI & Rochester, NY are set to each go from 0 danger days to more than 60 / year by 2050.                                              See tables below.

Warming Threatens Our Productivity.  More Could Lead to Endless Recession. 0815  Heat stress from 2°C warmer cuts output more than the 2007-9 recession, permanently.

Iran City Hits Suffocating Heat Index of 165°F, near World Record 0715  115°F, 90°F dew point.  Almost as bad in nearby places and days.

The Deadly Combination of Heat and Humidity 0615  At a wet-bulb termperature (see table at left) over 80°F, a physically active person has trouble maintaining core body temperature and risks overheating.  A sedentary person who is naked and in the shade will run into the same problem at a wet-bulb temperature of 92°F.  A wet-bulb temperature of 95°F is lethal after about 6 hours.

Pakistan Heat Wave - Death Toll over 800 in Sindh 0615

Heat Wave in Pakistan's Sindh Province Leaves 120 Dead 0615

The Climate Context for India’s Deadly Heat Wave 0615                                                                              

Las Vegas 48, Astoria OR 8, Missoula MT 11.

Deadly Combination of Heat and Humidity 0615

Global Warming May Not Be So Great for Plant Life, after All 0615 - gain range near poles, but lose far more in tropics

The Heat and Death Toll Are Rising in India.  Is This a Glimpse of Earth’s Future? 0515 - 1,800 people as of May 30

Excessive Heat Threatens Future of Australian Outdoor Summer Sport 0215

Aging Population to Compound Deadly Effects of Worsening Heat Waves 1114

Climate Change Threatens Newest Prescription for Children - Time Outdoors 0914

With Heat and Humidity, Areas Will Become Unsuited for Outdoor Activity 0614

Heat Waves Are the Deadliest Extreme Weather Event - CDC 0813

As Temperatures Rise, Lancaster Farmers Cool Their Cows 0713

Rising Temperatures Increase Health Risks 0513

Warming Will Cut Human Work Capacity - Hugely! 0213   The great heat would make human work capacity drop 37% by 2100 during the hottest summer months.  Sustained work would become impossible in the lower Mississippi Valley - worse than Bahrain today.  Heat and humidity in Washington DC would be worse than in New Orleans in summer today.  Even New York City heat stress would exceed today's Bahrain level by 2200.  The effect could be reduced, but not eliminated, by stabilizing CO2 levels soon.

Home Air Conditioning Cut Early Deaths on Hot Days by 80% 1212

Climate Downgrade - Heat Stress 1112

     In September 2011, Jim Hansen said "If we stay on with business as usual, the southern U.S. will become almost uninhabitable.” thinkprogress.org/climate/2011/09/29/332369/nasa-hansen-the-southern-u-s-will-become-almost-uninhabitable/

Heat Wave Temps to Soar: LA 117°F etc. 0708

Heat in the Heartland - Climate Change and Economic Risk in the Midwest - Risky Business / Grayson 0115 - PDF, 58 pp

     Days above 95°F will roughly triple. (See Figure 1, partly excerpted below.)  This includes 75-100 such days a year for southern Illinois (Carbondale, Cairo, Vincennes, plus Decauter) and more than half of Missouri (St. Louis, Cape Girardeau, Joplin, Sedalia, Rolla, Poplar Bluff, Hannibal, etc.)  It also includes Evansville IN and sliver of Ohio between Portsmouth and Marietta and Iowa north of Hannibal.  This is almost as hot as Las Vegas.
     The Midwest in particular will experience rising temperatures, in terms of warmer winters more than unbearable summers. But by the end of the century, the average Midwesterner will likely see 22 to 77 days per year over 95°F, compared to only 3, on average, over the past 30 years. 

      

     There is a 5% (or more) chance that 125-150 days a year will exceed 95°F in much the same area (plus Terre Haute and Jasper IN and Effingham IL, but minus Hannibal and Sedalia MO).  See the rest of Figure 1 in the report.

     These compare to 114 days above 95°F for Las Vegas in 2014, 95 such days in 2013, and 115 in 2012.  The southern Midwest can become hotter than Las Vegas by the end of the century (or a little later), if current emission trends continue.

     Below at right, Category II probably corresponds to green in the colored table above (THI 90-104°F), Category III to yellow (105-129°F), and Category IV to red (130°F +).

     Below, based on current emission trends (maps from Figure 3 in the report), summers in Missouri, Illinois, and Indiana grow hotter by 2100 than Texas and Arizona ones today.  Iowa and Ohio ones grow as hot as Texas ones now.  Michigan, Minnesota and Wisconsin summers grow almost as hot.

     At right mostly above (from Figure 4 in the report), heat stroke days will increase dramatically by the end of the century, from none now.  Most of Missouri, Illinois and Indiana would suffer 40-60 days a year of dangerous heat: as bad (hot and humid) as anywhere in Texas.  Ohio and Iowa would see 30-50 such days a year.
     Worse, all of Illinois - and most of Missouri, Iowa, and Indiana - would experience 10-25 days a year of extremely dangerous heat: hotter (wet bulb) than anywhere in Texas.
     In fact, “On our current path, the Midwest will likely see an average of as many as 3 days per year of Category IV conditions, which have never been experienced in the U.S. to date.

Diseases - Infectious (1 or 2 or Carriers)

Why You Need to Know about Mice, Ticks, Warm Weather and Lyme Disease 0617

Diseases Hidden in Ice are Waking Up 0517

Drought Dramatically Worsens Deadly West Nile Virus Epidemics in U.S. 0217

Warming Climate May Limit Lyme Disease's Spread in Parts of the U.S. 0117

El Niño on a Warming Planet May Have Sparked the Zika Epidemic 1216

As Earth Warms, Possible Diseases in Permafrost Become a Bigger Worry 1016

Global Warming Linked to Rise in Waterborne Illnesses 0816

Scientists Tease Out Climate Change’s Role in Zika Spread 0816
          Brazil’s drought -> (open) home water storage -> mosquito breeding grounds

Climate Change Will Make Us Sicker and Make Our Food Less Nutritious 0416

More Heat Means More Diarrhea 0316

Climate Change May Have Helped Spread Zika Virus 0216

Ticks That Carry Lyme Disease Live in Almost Half of US Counties 0116

Dengue Fever Cases in Hawaii Spike over the Holidays 1215

Dengue Epidemics Linked to High Temperatures in Southeast Asia 1015

Dengue Cases in India at 5-Year High 0915

The New War on Lyme and Other Tick-Borne Diseases 0815

Warming Helps Mosquito & Tick Disease Carriers, Poison Ivy, Ragweed Flourish 0815

Stomach Bugs Increasing at a Coast near You?  Thank Climate Change. 0815

Lyme Disease Is Spreading 0715

  immediately below - habitat suitable for Lyme disease tick.   

Mosquitoes Could Bring UK Deadly Tropical Diseases as Warming Kicks In 0315

Plague Resurgence Follows Destruction of Forests 0315

Climate Change Poised to Make Infectious Disease Outbreaks More Frequent 0215

Climate Change Could Bring More Disease, Crop Damage, Fires to Colorado 0215

Deadly Japanese Encephalitis Surges in Northeast India 0115

UN Researchers Say Dengue Fever Could Spread to Europe 1214

Risk of Dengue Increases Due to Climate Change, City Growth 1214

Deadly Cholera Outbreaks Could Increase with Climate Change 1214

More Than Ebola, Other Tropical Diseases Pose Growing Threat to U.S. 1114

Climate-Driven Migration Increasing Disease (Lalaazar) Burden in Ethiopia 1114

West Nile Virus Cases Surging in California's Bay Area 1014

India Dengue Fever Cases 300 x Higher than Officially Reported 1014

West Nile Virus Infections Slam California 0914

Could Climate Change Cause Deadly Epidemics? 0814

Is Climate Change Key to Spread of Ebola? 0814

UK Cities Becoming Mosquito-Friendly Habitats 0514

Climate Change, Coral Reefs, Deforestation and Dengue 0414

Climate Clues as Dengue Fever Spreads in US 1113

Why Dengue and Yellow Fever Could Be Coming to a City Near You 1113

Climate May Play a Role in the Distribution and Prevalence of Blindness 1113

Thailand Suffers Worst Dengue Epidemic in More Than 20 Years 1013

India Battles Dengue Fever Outbreak 1013

Dengue Fever Present in Florida at a Pretty Serious Level 0913

Ragweed Thrives with Climate Change 0913

West Nile Virus Season to Last Longer as Climate Changes 0913

Predicting India's Vector-borne Diseases in Climate Change Era 0913

Dengue Fever Epidemic Is Public Health Emergency in Central America 0813

Infectious Disease Could Become More Common in a Warmer World 0813

Brain-Eating Amoeba Case Linked to Warm Water 0813

Rise of Bloodsucking Insects You Can't Just Swat Away 0713

West Nile Virus Outbreaks Will Flare Up, Experts Say 0713

In the Eye of the Tiger (Mosquito) 0613

Tropical Diseases Have Come to America 0613

Fever Hits Thousands in Parched West Farm Region 0513

Climate Changes Could Bring Malaria to the UK 0513

Deadly Spread of Diarrhea Linked to Longer Droughts in Africa 0413

Ocean Heat Can Predict Malaria Outbreaks in India 0313

Warmer Winters Spawn Stronger Flu Outbreaks 0113

Record West Nile Virus Outbreak Follows Record Summer Heat 0812

Climate Change May Boost Frog Disease Chytridiomycosis 0812

Climate Change Called Greatest Health Challenge 0509

Dramatic Rise in Malaria, Dengue Fever 1108

Warming Oceans Breed Tropical Bacteria in Northern Europe 0712

Cutting Rain Forest Doubles Malaria 0610

Diseases - General & Multiple

Mosquitoes Carrying Zika, Other Deadly Viruses Could Breed in 75% of US 0917

Climate Change Is Already Making People Sicker 0917

These Infections Are Likely to Get Worse as Climate Changes 0817

American's Health Hurt By Global Warming, Doctors Say 0317

Critical Condition - Health Experts Sound the Climate Alarm 0217

EPA’s Case for Climate Action – Improve Public Health 0516

The New War on Lyme and Other Tick-Borne Diseases 0815

Climate Change Threatens 50 Years of Progress in Global Health 0615

Climate Change Set to Take Major Toll on Economy, Children's Health 0515

Climate Change a Risk to Australians’ Health 0415

Iowa Scientists Point to Health Effects of Climate Change 1014

Cutting Carbon Emissions Would Have Almost Immediate Health Benefits 0914

6 Ways Climate Change is Making Us Sick 0914

Tackling Climate Change Presents a 'Golden Opportunity' For Public Health 0914

WHO - Climate Change Is Major Threat to Human Health 0814

Climate Change's Health Toll - We Can Save Millions of Lives, Even Now 0814

UN Experts Call for Action to Mitigate Climate-Related Health Risks 0814

Health Benefits of Reducing Emissions Outweigh Costs Involved 0814

Warming Report Sees Violent, Sicker, Poorer Future 1113

Climate Becoming a Health Priority 0813

Expert Brings Public Health into Climate Change 0813

How Will Global Warming Affect the Spread of Disease? 0813

Australia Faces Increased Risk of Disease from Climate Change 0813

As Arctic Ice Melts, Disease Spreads 0613

Climate Change May Bring More and New Diseases 0313

Climate Change Action Averts Health Crisis 1109

Rapid Climate Change Risks Health of Billions 1109 

Climate-Driven Health Catastrophe Ahead 0909

Climate Change Called Greatest Health Challenge 0509

Warming Spreads 12 Deadly Diseases 1008: Avian influenza, babesiosis, cholera, ebola, intestinal & external parasites, Lyme disease, plague, red tides, Rift Valley fever, sleeping sickness, tuberculosis, and yellow fever.

More Tropical Diseases 0496

Diseases - Animal & Plant

Warm-Weather Plague Killed over Half of Endangered Saiga Antelopes in 3 Weeks 0118

Threat of Moose-Killing Tick Infestation Looms, as Far-North Climate Warms 0517

Loon's Malaria Death Seen as Sign of Climate Change 0416

Fungal Diseases Are Surging, Threatening Species around the World 0316

Climate Change and Pets - More Fleas, More Heartworm 0216

Reindeer at Risk of Disease as Climate Change Boosts Tick Numbers 1215

Toxic Algae Is Killing Sea Lions, Shows No Sign of Diminishing 0815

What to Know About the Record Toxic Algae Lapping Up on the West Coast 0815

Scientists Fear Toxic Algae Bloom Spreading on Pacific Coast 0815

North American Moose Dying in Droves, as Warming Fuels Disease, Pests 0515

As Climate Warms, More Outbreaks of Disease for Sea Life 1114

Diseases Destroy British Trees 0713

Warming Inflicts New Diseases on Britain's Livestock, Crops 0613

As Arctic Ice Melts, Disease Spreads 0613

Diseases - Non-Infectious & Health Problems

Rising CO2 Emissions May Increase Global Iron Deficiency Risk 0517

Doctor - to Fight Asthma, Fight Global Warming 0317

Hot Days in Early Pregnancy May Be Potential Risk for Congenital Heart Defects 0117

Climate Change to Increase Hay Fever 0816

Climate Change Is Bad for Your Kidneys 0616 - Cause = dehydration, which is more common as temperatures rise

EPA’s Case for Climate Action – Improve Public Health 0516

Elevated CO2 Levels Directly Affect Human Cognition 1015

Climate Change May Speed Spread of Asthma 0415

Obama Presents Climate Change as Hazard to Your Health 0415

Hay Fever Season Becoming Longer, More Intense with Climate Change 0215

Another Reason to Fear Climate Change - You May Get Worms 0115

Beijing's Air Pollution Is Shaving Up To 16 Years Off Chinese People's Lives 0114

Cold Kills More than Heat, CDC Says; Other Researchers Say Maybe Not 0814

Hotter Summers Mean More Health Risks In Urban Heat Islands 1013

Central Valley Farm Workers Still Vulnerable to Heat-Related Illness 0713

Wildfire Smoke a Rising Health Concern with Climate Change 0613

Diseases - Misc.

Earth’s Fresh-Water Resources at Risk 0115

Warming Climate Begins to Taint Europe's Blood Supplies 0913

As Temperatures Rise, Damaging Ozone Expected to Increase 0713


Extinctions

As Climate Change Takes Hold by 2050, Bees Will Be the 1st to Fall 0418

Climate Change Threatens 1,000s of Species in Our Lifetime 0318

Magma Burning Coal May Have Caused Earth’s Worst Mass Extinction 0318

World’s Great Forests Could Lose Half of All Wildlife as Planet Warms 0318

World's Worst-Ever Extinction Event ‘Caused by UV Radiation' 0218

Will Chocolate Be among the Foods That Go Extinct due to Climate Change? 0118 - vrious foods, plus, bees decline

Trophy Hunting May Drive Extinctions, due to Climate Change 1117

High Marine Extinction Risk by 2100 - 1017

Earth May Be Close to 'Threshold of Catastrophe’ 1017 - rates of carbon additions now vs in previous extinctions

Climate Change May Represent “Existential" Threat to Humanity - Scripps 0917

Future of Oldest Tree Species on Earth in Peril 0917

Monarch Butterflies in Western U.S. Risk Extinction 0917

Climate Change Could Wipe Out 1/3 of Parasite Species 0917

Climate Change, Sewage, Fertilizers Could Trigger Mass Ocean Extinction 0817

Proposed Colombia Dam Threatens to Wipe Out Endangered Plants, Disrupt River 0717

How Climate Change Strangled a Jurassic Ocean Ecosystem 0717

Past Extinctions Point to a Current and Future Biodiversity Crisis 0717

6th Mass Extinction - the Era of ‘Biological Annihilation’ 0717 - current steep rates of habitat loss, population declines

Burning Fossil Fuels Almost Ended All Life on Earth 0717 - closest analog of today, but we are changing climate 10 x faster.  It is a tour thru the geological record of Earth’s greatest extinction “event” 250-252 million years ago.  Magma then erupted to become the Siberian Traps, enough to cover the USA 1 km deep, THRU vast coal beds - the other fossil fuel event.

Warmer Climate Raises Extinction Risk 0617

Extinction Looming for Most of California’s Salmon and Trout 0517

Climate Change Plays a Role in Growing List of Species at Risk 0517

More than 1/4 of UK Birds Face Extinction Risk or Steep Decline 0417 - turtle dove and Atlantic puffin included

1,000s of Tree Species Are at Risk of Extinction 0417

Half of the World's Species Could Become Extinct by 2050, Biologists Say 0217

Act Now, before 47% of Mammal and 24% of Bird Species Are Lost to Global Warming 0217

Surprising Number of Species Going Extinct in Their Usual Homes 1216

Climate Changing Too Fast for Species 1116

Butterflies Could Be About to We Wiped Out by Extreme Weather 1016

Global Warming Could Kill Off Good Bacteria, Hurting Ecosystems’ Achilles Heel 1016

The Biggest Animals in the Ocean Are More Likely to Go Extinct 0916

Warming Climate Expected to Squeeze Out Arctic Bird Habitat 0816

Mass Extinction Has a Tipping Point 0716 - Ancient plankton communities began changing in important ways up to 400,000 years before massive die-offs ensued.

Over 1/3 of North American Bird Species in Danger of Extinction 0516 - Ocean & tropical forest birds are threatened most.

The Quest to Protect Threatened Amphibian Species 0516 1/3 of amphibian species threatened.  160 already disappeared.

1 in 5 of World's Plant Species at Risk of Extinction 0516

Climate vs. Primate - Dawn of Extinction? 0316

Dealing with Climate Change in Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest 0116

More than Half the Amazon Tree Species Are at Risk of Extinction 1115

Climate Change Means One World’s Death and Another’s Birth 0915

Changing Climate Could Even Oust the Oriole from Baltimore 0915

Global Extinction Rates - Why Do Estimates Vary So Wildly? 0815

Andes' Migrating Trees Are Moving towards Extinction 0815

During Mass Extinction, No Species Safe 0815

Abrupt Climate Change May Have Doomed Mammoths and Other Megafauna 0715

Humans Are Causing Catastrophic Ecosystem Shifts 0615

Earth is in the Midst of a Man-Made Extinction Event Not Seen for 65 Million Years 0615 

1 in 6 of World's Species Faces Extinction from Climate Change 0415

Acidic Oceans Helped Fuel Greatest Extinction 0415

Did Climate Change Kill This Hoosier Butterfly? 0315

Ocean Life Faces Mass Extinction, Broad Study Says 0115

Mass Die-offs of Fish, Birds, Mammals Increasing 0115

13 Species We Might Have to Say Goodbye to in 2015 - 0115

Earth Faces 6th ‘Great Extinction’ 1214

Animal Extinctions From Climate Rival End of Dinosaurs 1114

Growth, Global Warming Threaten African Species 0714

Warming Could Bring Snakes as long as Buses, Horses the Size of Cats 1113

Acid Rain, Ozone Depletion Contributed to Greatest Extinction 1113

82% of California Native Fish Risk Extinction 0513

Fast-Moving Climate Zones Speed Extinction 0413

Ancient Extinction Has Ominous Lessons for Today 0313  

Dead Zones Warming Extinguished Most Species 180 Mya 0213

Mass Extinction Forecast with 6°C Warming 0113

Ice Age Warmth Repeatedly Wiped Out Local Lemmings 1112

Extreme Global Warming Caused Largest Extinction Ever 1012

900 Tropical Bird Species Could Go Extinct by 2100 0312

Antarctic Warming Plummets Krill, Penguin Populations 0411

Up to 50% to Go Extinct in 100 Years 0111

20% of Animal Species Slide to Extinction 1010

1/5 of Plants Near Extinction 0910

Warming Drives Lizards to Extinction 0510

Extinction Rates, Today vs History - May 0110 - PDF

     Graph at left is from Millennium Ecosystem Assessment: Ecosystems and Human Well-Being: Synthesis (2005), via May, 2010 - above.

Caption:     "Species extinction rates, expressed as extinctions per 1,000 species per 1,000 years.  The fossil record tells us that, in the distant past, less than one mammal went extinct every 1,000 years.  In the recent past, the number of extinctions has increased 3 orders of magnitude higher than that of the fossil records."
     That is, mammal extinction rates are hundreds of times (200-500 x) background rates.

2°C Warming Means 20% of Species Extinct 1209

1/3 of Species Now Face Extinction, Take 1 - 1109 - of assessed species: 70% of plants, 21% of mammals, 12% of birds, 30% of amphibians, 37% of freshwater fish, 35% of invertebrates.

Over 1/3 of Species Assessed Face Extinction, Take 2 - 1109

Warming Drives Caribou to Extinction 1009

Warming Like Today's Caused Greatest Extinction 1108

6th Great Extinction 0307  Climate has played a critical role in past fluctuations of biodiversity levels.  Among the 5 recognized mass extinction events -- Ordovician, Devonian, Permian, Triassic, and Cretaceous -- at least 4 are correlated to climate change….  "For the Permian, the greatest mass extinction on record, … global warming ... produced temperatures 1 - 30°C (18-54°F) higher than today.  It wiped out 95% of ocean life forms and almost 75% of terrestrial species."

Extinctions from Warming 0705






     Only 3 of the 21 large animal species found around San Diego near the end of the most recent ice age are still found there.

     5 more are still found elsewhere.  

     But 62% are now extinct, in only about 10,000 years.

(Signs from San Diego Zoo)










Severe Population Declines, 1

Dangerous Biodiversity Decline Threatens Livelihoods, Food and Water Security 0318

Marine Heat Wave Set Off 'Carbon Bomb' in World's Largest Seagrass Meadow 0318

In Iceland, Global Warming Is No Longer a Joke 0318

Almost All Sea Turtles Born in Florida Are Female.  Here’s Likely Why. 0318

Antarctica's King Penguins 'Could Disappear' by 2100 - 0218

Seagrass Meadows Are Vital, but in Serious Decline 0218

Decline in Krill Threatens Antarctic Wildlife, from Whales to Penguins 0218

Warm-Weather Plague Killed over Half of Endangered Saiga Antelopes in 3 Weeks 0118

Australia's Severe Heat Is Affecting the Sperm of the Bird Population 0118

The Impact of Global Warming in the Land of Santa Claus 1217

Disappearing Sea Ice Could Lead to Collapse of Vital Polar Food Chain 1217

Changes to the Ocean’s Micro Creatures Could Have Macro Effects 1117

As Oceans Warm, the World’s Kelp Forests Begin to Disappear 1117

Pacific Ocean Warm ‘Blob’ Appears to Take Toll on Alaska Cod 1117

Arctic Sea Change 1017

Insect Numbers, in Dramatic Plunge, Portends 'Ecological Armageddon' 1017

Failing Phytoplankton, Failing Oxygen - Global Warming Could Suffocate Life on Earth 1215

As Seas Warm, Whales Face New Dangers 1017

Warming Planet Is Hazard to Fish, via Increased Salinity and Algal Blooms 0917

Warming Seas Endanger Antarctic Ecosystem, and Billion-Dollar Fishing Industry 0717

Global Warming Threatens North Carolina's Bees 0717

Threat of Moose-Killing Tick Infestation Looms, as Far-North Climate Warms 0517

Climate Change Could Drive Coastal Food Webs to Collapse 0417

How "Godzilla" El Niño Affected Tropical Fish in Low-Oxygen Zone 0417

Disastrous 2016 Shows Butterflies Are ‘Failing to Cope' with Climate Change 0417

More than 1/4 of UK Birds Face Extinction Risk or Steep Decline 0417 - turtle dove and Atlantic puffin included

Climate Change Impacting ‘Most’ Species on Earth, Down to Their Genomes 0417

Climate-Driven Species on the Move Are Changing (Almost) Everything 0417

Grassland Lab Warming Raises Species Loss Alarm 0317

Australian Mangrove Forest over 1000 Kilometers ‘Died of Thirst' 0317

Ticks, Thriving in Warm Weather, Take a Ghastly Toll on New England Moose 0117

Record-Breaking Extreme Weather in Australia in 2016 Devastates Ecosystems 0117

Climate Change Could Have Devastating Impact on Global Fisheries 1216

In the Polar Bear Capital of the World, the Snow Has Gone 1216

Polar Bear Numbers to Plunge by 1/3, as Sea Ice Melts 1216

Over 80,000 Reindeer Deaths In Russia Linked to Retreating Arctic Sea Ice 1116

Wildlife Populations Plunge Almost 60% since 1970 - WWF 1016

San Francisco Bay Ecosystem Collapsing, as Rivers Diverted 1016

1.5 Billion Birds Missing from North American Skies Is ‘Alarming’ 0916

Turning up the Heat to Push Many Australian Plants to the Brink 0916

Soaring Ocean Temperature Is ‘Greatest Hidden Challenge of Our Generation' 0916

All Aflutter - Extreme Weather Threatens Mexico's Monarch Butterflies 0816

Arctic Fish Populations Changing as Ice Dwindles 0816

The Blob - How Marine Heat Waves Are Causing Unprecedented Climate Chaos 0816

Mountain Biodiversity More Vulnerable to Climate Change than Earlier Reported 0816

World’s Longest Lake Is Being Depleted of Life as Waters Warm 0816

Wildlife Dying En Masse, as South American River Runs Dry 0716 - Pilcomayo in Paraguay, Bolivia

Sections of Great Barrier Reef Suffer Complete Ecosystem Collapse 0716 - Most fish populations plummet or vanish.

Climate Change Blamed for Mangrove Deaths 0716 along Australia’s northern coast

Ocean Warming due to Plankton Collapse 0616

The Quest to Protect Threatened Amphibian Species 0516 1/3 of amphibian species threatened; 160 already disappeared.

Climate Change and the Case of the Shrinking Red Knot Birds 0516

Polar Bears Losing Weight as Arctic Sea Ice Melts 0416

Is Climate Change Putting the World's Micro-Biomes at Risk? 0316

Climate vs. Primate - Dawn of Extinction? 0316

Chilean Salmon under Threat 0316

Scotland’s Native Insects at Severe Risk from Climate Change 0216

Climate Stirring Change beneath the Waves 0216

Decline in Bee Population is Putting Global Food Industry at Risk 0216

Scientists Link Massive Starfish Die-off to Warming Ocean 0216

'Major Decline' in Antarctic Penguin Population 0216

US Seafood Species Are Highly Vulnerable to Climate Change 0216

Phytoplankton Rapidly Disappearing from the Indian Ocean 0216

Warmer Indian Ocean Could Be 'Ecological Desert', Scientists Warn 0116 - Phytoplankton down up to 20%.

Pacific Shellfish Set for Price Hike, as Ocean Acidity Keeps Rising 0116

Starvation Suspected in Massive Die-off of Alaska Seabirds 0116

Dealing with Climate Change in Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest 0116

US Wild Bee Numbers Decline, as Land Is Converted for Biofuel 1215

3/4 of the UK Butterfly Species Have Declined in the Last 40 Years 1215

Fish Stocks Are Declining Worldwide; Climate Change Is on the Hook 1215

Polar Bear Numbers to Fall, as Arctic Ice Shrinks 1115

Indonesia Blazes Threaten Endangered Orangutans 1115

Abrupt Changes in Food Chains Predicted as Southern Ocean Acidifies Fast 1115

Collapse of New England’s Iconic Cod Tied to Climate Change 1015

Global Warming Puts Snow Leopards in a Bind 1015

Acorn Crop Dips as Climate Changes 1015

Warming Oceans May Threaten Krill, Cornerstone of the Antarctic Ecosystem 1015

Marine Population Halved since 1970 - 0915

Thousands of Salmon Die in Hotter-than-Usual Northwest Rivers 0715

Polar Bears Can't Adapt to Melting Arctic, Will Waste Away 0715

Tough Days for Salmon, as Fraser River Runs Hotter, Lower than Expected 0715

Polar Bears Face Steep Declines Because of Melting Sea Ice 0715

Climate Change Is Latest Threat for Struggling Bird Species – Red Knots 0615

Fish, Crabs Are Losing Homes as Oceans Lose Oxygen 0615

North American Moose Dying in Droves, as Warming Fuels Disease, Pests 0515

Climate Change Is Devastating Ohio's Beloved Birds 0515

Wild Animals in Drought-Stricken Western States Are Dying for a Drink 0515

Wildlife Decline May Lead to ‘Empty Landscape' 0515

History Lessons Highlight Climate Threat to Birds 0415 - population ebbs and flows over 2 million years

Out of Plaice - Popular UK Fish at Risk from Rising Temperatures 0415

Beyond Almonds - a Rogue's Gallery of Guzzlers In California's Drought 0415

Hunters See Climate Changing Their Traditions 0415

Lemurs Losing Their Land to Climate Change 0215

California Sea Lion Crisis - Warmer Seas May Be to Blame 0215

Decreasing Range of California Pikas Linked to Climate Change 0215

Poor Outlook for Borneo's Mammals 0115

Mass Die-offs of Fish, Birds, Mammals Increasing 0115

Climate Change May Halve Giant Panda's Habitat by 2070 - 0115

Scientists Track Natural Responses to Climate Change 0115

Climate Changes, Habitat Loss Cited as Threats to 314 Bird Species 1214

Higher Temperatures May Result in Fewer Bees 1114

Britain's Migrating Birds Are Drastically Declining 1014

World Wildlife Populations Halved in 40 Years 0914 - about update of 2012 WWF report, just below

          (See many individual species graphs, below 2012 edition, farther below.)

Living Planet Report Update - WWF 0914 - PDF, 180 pp.  update of 2012 report farther below

     The global Living Planet Index (LPI) reveals a continual decline in vertebrate populations over the last 40 years. This global trend shows no sign of slowing down.  For this 10th edition of the Living Planet Report, the LPI methodology has been updated and fine-tuned to give a better representation of the global distribution of vertebrate species.
     The weighted LPI (LPI-D) shows that the size of populations (the number of individual animals) decreased by 52% from 1970 to 2010.  This 52% includes 56% declines in tropical populations and 36% in temperate zone populationss.  It includes 39% declines for terrestrial species populations, 76% for fresh water ones, and 39% for marine ones.  Populations in protected areas declined only 18%.
     For 
terrestrial species, habitat loss to human land use – notably agriculture, cities and energy – is the major threat.  For freshwater ones, habitat loss and fragmentation, connectivity (water level changes from dams, irrigation, etc.), pollution, and invasive species are the threats.  For marine ones, stability followed a steep drop to till the mid-80s, with the largest declines in the tropics and Southern Ocean.

    This is a steeper decline than the 28% reported in the previous edition, when data from North America and Europe  – where long-term trend information has been more readily available –  dominated the global LPI.

     The LPI is calculated using trends in 10,380 populations of over 3,038 vertebrate species (fishes, amphibians, reptiles, birds and mammals).  These species groups have been comprehensively researched and monitored by scientists and the general public for many years, meaning that a lot of data is available to assess the state of specific populations and their trends over time.

 

 

Common UK Birds, such as Sparrow and Skylark, Face Decline in Europe 1114

Half of North American Bird Species Threatened by Climate Change 0914

Massive Deaths in Northern Seabird Colonies Are Due to Climate, Ocean Changes 0814

Built for Survival, Birds Are in Trouble from Pole to Pole, from Toxins and Heat 0814

Suburbs, Farms, Plus Global Warming Threaten Wild Animals and Plants 0814

Wading Birds Declining in the UK 0714

Antarctic Fur Seals Feel Climate Impacts 0714

Growth, Global Warming Threaten African Species 0714

Warming Threat to Emperor Penguins 0614

Acid Ocean Is Dissolving Pteropod (Tiny Snail) Shells off U.S. West Coast 0414

Over 3/4 of Large Carnivores Are Now in Decline 0114

Severe Population Declines, 2

Predatory Development Threatens Brazil's Amazon - Marina Silva 1113

Jellyfish Winning the Fight for Food - Against Humans 1113

Climate Change Biggest Threat to Deer, Moose 1113

Precarious Future Looms for Canada’s Great Inland Delta 1113

Army of Volunteers Compiles Evidence of Climate Change in Alaska 1113

Climate Change Is Killing the Wolves of Isle Royale 1013

Warming Bolsters Alberta Grizzlies 1013

Moose Die-Off Alarms Scientists 1013

UK's Natural Environment in Jeopardy, as Species Decline 1013

Koalas Face Huge Fall in Numbers as Climate Change Bites 1013

Warming Lake Superior Leaves Trout Less Able to Cope 1013

Climate Change Puts US Freshwater Fish at Risk 0913

Why Monarch Butterfly Numbers Are in Freefall 0713



updated from Brower et al., Insect Conser. & Diver., 5, 95, 2011







78% Drop in Coastal Fish Over 40 Years Off California 0713

Evolution Too Slow to Keep Up with Climate Change 0713

Birds Outpace Climate Change to Avoid Extinction 0713 

Common Plants, Animals Threatened by Climate Change 0513 

Amazon on Path to Lose 65% of Biomass by 2060 - 0513

Painted Turtles Set to Become All Female, Extinct 0513

Monarch Butterflies Drop Ominously in Mexico 0313

Climate Change a Threat to Wildlife 0113

Caribou Populations in Steep Decline 1212 

Marine Heat Wave Off West Australian Coast Kills Lots of Valuable Shelled Seafood 1212 

UK Birds Down 20% Since 1966 1112

Climate Change Is Killing Ground Squirrels 0812

Intense New England Rains Imperil Gulf of Maine’s Food Chain 0612

Warming Makes Minnesota Moose Population Plummet 0512 

Wild Populations Down 30% Since 1970 0512 summarizes the report below.

Living Planet Report - Biodiversity & Declines - WWF 2012 - PDF, 164 pp.     The 12 figures below show population changes for a few of more than 11,000 populations and species studied, around the world.  See 2014 update, above.

Tigers:    Bengal '70-'10                       Sumatran '78-'07                        Amur '75-'10                      Malayan 1997-98

Dolphins:   Amazon '99-'01                    Irawaddy '97-'10                     Baiji (China) '80-'10           Yangtze Porpoise '88-'07

       European Otter '84-'04            Wandering Albatross '72-'10     North Bluefin Tuna -71-'04         Atlantic Cod  '61-'10

          The 5 figures below summarize thousands of species declines (and increases) across regions.

         US, Canada & north Mexico            Europe, Russia, China, Mid East, N Africa             Africa S of Sahara                .                 Latin America, x north Mexico                                      India, Pakistan, SE China, SE Asia, Australia +



     The Global Living Planet Index, below, suggests that across the globe, vertebrate populations were on average 28% smaller in 2008 than they were in 1970. This is based on trends in the size of 9,014 populations of 2,688 mammal, bird, reptile, amphibian and fish species – many more than in previous editions of the Living Planet Report (WWF, 2006b; 2008b; 2010a).  Above, declines were greatest in tropics.

     Shading on this, and all Living Planet Index figures represents the 95% confidence limits surrounding the trend; the wider the shading, the more variable the underlying trend (WWF/ZSL, 2012).

     

Climate Changing Outlook for Harp Seals 0112

World's Ocean Life in Shocking Decline 0611

Heated Oceans Endanger Coral Reefs 0910

Bee Population Decline May Be Due to Warming 0910 

More Bird Population Destruction Predicted with Warming 0810  

Rapid Decline in Phytoplankton 0710

Mangroves Disappear Faster Than Land Forests 0710 

Polar Bears Face Rapid Tipping Point 0510 

Bio-Losses = 30% Animals, etc. Cost $121 Trillion 0510

Bio-losses = 30% Animals, 40% Corals 0510 - "Since 1970, we have reduced animal populations by 30%, the area of mangroves and seagrasses by 20%, and the coverage of living corals by 40%…  These losses are clearly unsustainable."

Ocean Dead Zone Off Oregon Blamed on Climate Change 1009

North Sea Cod Doomed 0909

 

Range Shifts


The chart above is from the IPCC’s March 2014 AR 5 Impacts Summary.

As Climate Change Takes Hold by 2050, Bees Will Be the 1st to Fall 0418

In Iceland, Global Warming Is No Longer a Joke 0318

Beech Booming as Climate Changes.  That’s Bad for Forests. 0218

Impact of Warming Seas Felt by Northeastern Fisheries 0218

Arctic Sea Change 1017

Climate Change Is Disrupting the Birds and the Bees 0817

How Climate Change Could Be Making Polar Bears Healthier and More Dangerous 0617

Climate Emergency, as Fish Abandon Tropical Waters 0617

Thanks to Global Warming, Antarctica Is Beginning to Turn Green 0517

Drylands Will Suffer if World Reaches 2°C 0417

As Woody Shrubs Move North in a Warming Arctic, So Do Beavers 0417

Climate Change Impacting ‘Most’ Species on Earth, Down to Their Genomes 0417

Climate-Driven Species on the Move Are Changing (Almost) Everything 0417

Climate Change in the North Sea - Oysters In, Cod Out 0217

Warming Ocean Waters Off Alaska Bring Widespread Ecological Changes 0117

Climate Change Could Have Devastating Impact on Global Fisheries 1216

Terns Follow Record Warm Temperatures in ‘Shock' Migration to North of Alaska 0916

Melting Arctic Ice a Boon for Humpback, Minke Whales 0916

Soaring Ocean Temperature Is ‘Greatest Hidden Challenge of Our Generation' 0916

Arctic Fish Populations Changing as Ice Dwindles 0816

What Does Climate Change Mean for America’s $73 Billion Angling Industry? 0716

Australia's Vast Kelp Forests Devastated by Marine Heat Wave 0716

Fading Fishermen - a Historic Industry Faces a Warming World 0616 - Lobsters, cod, clams etc. move north, away from US

Climate Change Could Force Huge Migrations of People and Animals Living near the Equator 0616
     Suitable climates move outside the current tropics, which is 23° of latitude from the equator.  Long trips from equator.

How Fast Ocean Currents Will Help Plankton Survive Climate Change 0416

Global Warming Lets Moose Return to Alaskan Tundra for 1st Time since 1880 - 0416

There’s a Reason Some Birds Don’t Seem to Fly South for Winter Any More 0316

Climate Change Pushes Fish toward Poles, Threatening Food Source for Poor 0216

Climate Change Driving Species to the Earth's Poles Faster than Predicted 0216

Climate Change Is Leaving Native Plants Behind 0216

US Seafood Species Are Highly Vulnerable to Climate Change 0216

Dealing with Climate Change in Costa Rica's Monteverde Cloud Forest 0116

Record High Arctic Temperatures in 2015 Having ‘Profound Effects' on Region 1215

Animals Are Showing Up in Really Strange Places.  Here’s Why. 1115

Climate Change Already Forcing World's Birds towards Poles 1115

Only 25% of Original Habitats Have Survived in East Himalayas - WWF 1015

Shell-Crushing Crabs Invade Antarctica, Abetted by Climate Change 0915

Changing Climate Could Even Oust the Oriole from Baltimore 0915

A Warmer North Pacific Is Staying Warmer, With Dramatic Impact on Marine Life 0915

Great Barrier Reef Species More at Risk from Climate Change 0815

Lobsters in New England Shift North as Ocean Gets Warmer 0815

Andes' Migrating Trees Are Moving towards Extinction 0815

Climate Vise is Squeezing Bumble Bees’ Range 0715

Climate Change Is Latest Threat for Struggling Bird Species – Red Knots 0615

Global Warming May Cause Largest Ocean Species Migration in 3 Million Years 0615

As Andes Warm, Deciphering the Future for Tropical Birds 0515

Massive Bird Invasions Linked to Climate Shifts 0515

Out of Plaice - Popular UK Fish at Risk from Rising Temperatures 0415

Hunters See Climate Changing Their Traditions 0415

Climate Change Could Be Good News for Gray Whales 0315

Sardines Swim Northern Waters to Keep Cool 0215

Climate May Have Flounder-Like Fluke on the Move 0215

Climate Change May Halve Giant Panda's Habitat by 2070 - 0115

Scientists Track Natural Responses to Climate Change 0115

Ocean Scientists Find Unusual Species Off California’s Coast 1214

Swedish Chardonnay, Anyone?  Warmer World Means More Nordic Wines 1114

Climate Change Could Shift Iconic Ohio Buckeyes’ Habitat to Michigan 1114

How New England Could Become Farmville Again 1114

Southern Birds May Be Moving into Your Winter Backyard 1014

Warmer Atlantic Widens Tropical Lionfish's East Coast Hunting Ground 0914

Lyme Disease Surges North, Canada Moves Out of Denial 0914

Lobsters Pack Up and Move North 0914

Gulf of Alaska Is Unusually Warm, and Weird Fish Are Showing Up 0914

Suburbs, Farms, Plus Global Warming Threaten Wild Animals and Plants 0814

Mangroves Already on the Move in Southwest Florida 0814

Kudzu That Ate the South Heads North, as Climate Changes 0714

Tropical Fish Cause Trouble as Climate Change Drives Them Toward the Poles 0714

Arctic Report Card - NOAA 1213 - PDF
     Satellite-based % change in vegetation greenness at the peak of the growing season in the Arctic between 1982-2012.

     Deepest brown is 25% decrease, deepest green is 25% increase.

     "Greener Arctic tundra of the recent past is likely to be the new normal."

     Map by NOAA Climate.gov, based on AVHRR data provided by Uma Bhatt, University of Alaska-Fairbanks.  December 12, 2013.

In New Jersey Pines, Trouble Arrives on 6 Legs 1213

Army of Volunteers Compiles Evidence of Climate Change in Alaska 1113

Southern Flying Squirrels Land in Canada 1013

Mosquitoes Are Worse This Summer in Parts of US 0813

Climate Change Drives Spread of Crop Pests 0913

Climate Change Pushing Marine Life Toward Poles 0813

Swamp Rats on the Move as Winters Warm 0813

As Temperatures Rise, Pests and Invasive Plants Thrive 0813

English Trees on the March, as Climate Change Collapses Seasons 0713 

Climate Change - Disequilibrium to Become Norm in Future Plant Communities 0713  

As Oceans Warm, Fish Are Finding New ZIP Codes 0513  

Looking for Love as the Climate Warms - Hybrid Species 0213  

Minnesota Moose Population Plummets 0213 

Invasive Insects Changing Antarctic Landscape 1212

Panda Range to Shrink with Warming 1112 

Tropical Ocean Getting Too Hot for Phytoplankton 1012 

Michigan Wildlife Migrates as Climate Warms 1012.   consistent with migratng gardening zones, below.

Climate Change Driving Australian Fish South 0812

Most Mammals Can't Move Range Fast Enough for Climate Change 0512  

Warming Outpaces Bird Migrations in Europe 0112  

To Flee the Heat, Animals Move North & Up 0811.  Below is range & projected, for 9-banded armadillo.

Warming Oceans Cause Largest Movement of Marine Species in 2 Million Years 0611 

Climate Risks Greater for Long Migratory Birds 0910 

Warming Drives Massive Walrus Migration 0810 

Ecosystem Migration 1209

Warming Shifts Bird Ranges North 0209 - summary of study just below

Birds and Climate Report - Audubon 0209 - PDF


Timing Changes

Seabirds Not Adapting to Shifting Climate 0418

Spring’s Early Arrival for Much of the US Is Gorgeous, but Concerning 0218

100s of UK Wildflower Species Found Blooming in Mid-Winter 0118

Spring Foliage Appearing Too Early in the Alps? 1217

California Birds Nesting Earlier to Try to Survive Global Warming 1117

Climate Change Is Making Winter Start Later and Later 1017

How Climate Change Canceled the Grizzly Salmon Run 0817

Why the Arctic’s Mosquito Problem Is Getting Bigger, Badder 0817

Climate Change Is Disrupting the Birds and the Bees 0817

Warmer Ocean Brings Changes to Rhode Island, Wreaks Havoc on Ecosystem 0617

Grassland Lab Warming Raises Species Loss Alarm 0317

U.S. Geological Survey Hails an Early Spring — and Ties It to Climate Change 0217

Early Flowering of Rhododendrons Signals Climate Change in Uttarakhand 0217

Himalayan Bloom Brings Spring Forward 0117

Climate Change Driving Birds to Migrate Early, Research Reveals 1216

Warming Triggers Early Algae Blooms, Potential Ripple Effects to Come 1016

Climate Change Is Causing Earlier Springs in National Parks 1016

Birds Beating Global Warming by Adjusting Their Egg-Laying Times 0516

Hunters See Climate Changing Their Traditions 0415

Signs of Spring 'Shifting' in Trees 0315

Hay Fever Season Becoming Longer, More Intense with Climate Change 0215

Yellowstone Grizzlies Exiting Winter Hibernation Early, Amid Mild Weather 0215

Warming Is Disrupting Critical Ecological Timing 0115

Scientists Track Natural Responses to Climate Change 0115

Is It Spring Already?  Frogspawn Seen in Cornwall 4 Months Early 1114

Earlier Spring, Later Fall Could Mean 240 Days of Summer 1114

     The end of the US growing season is when satellites see the overall greenness of foliage start to decline.

     This shows a trend for end of growing season 9 days later over 36 years.

CO2 Makes Growing Seasons Longer 0414

Early Springs Surprise Many Species 0414

Dull Leaf Hues Called Climate Change Omen 1113

Foliage Season Under Fire from Climate Change 1013

      The graph below is for England,
from Amano 
et al. (2010).

above uses data from Concord MA, starting with Thoreau journals ~1850, and Boston MA
from Polgar, C.A, R.B Primack, E. Williams, S. Stichter, and C. Hitchcock. 2013.  "The effect of temperature on the timing 
of the adult flight period of Lycenid butterflies in Massachusetts."  Biological Conservation 160: 25-31

Global Warming Threatens Hudson Bay Lowlands Arctic Refuge 1013

Can Long-Distance Migrating Shorebird Survive? 1013

Climate Change Leaves Hares Wearing The Wrong Colors 0913

Long Migrating Birds Are Climate Change Casualty 0713 

More Vultures, Fewer Swallows – Blame Climate Change 0613  

Climate Change Threatens New England Birds 0613  

Climate Change Keeping Early Birds from Getting Worms 0613  

A Science of Signs of Spring 0313 

Nature Adapts to Shifting Seasons 0213 

Spring Has Sprung Early in Orlando 0113

Earliest Blooms Recorded in US 0113  

Autumn Onset Comes Later in US 1012  

Delay of Bloom Blamed on Climate Change 0512  

Ecological Partnerships are Getting Out of Sync 0512 

Plants Flower Faster Than Climate Models Predict 0512  

Spring Arrives Earlier, Fall Comes Later 0312

     Table below is from IPCC, 2007.  Many-species studies found (averages of range endpoints used) 0.8, 1.6, 4.5, 2.5, 2.85, 4.4, 3.1, 3.15, 6.3, and 0.45 days per decade earlier blooms or arrivals.  Grand average of these is 3.0 days per decade earlier.

Arctic Plankton Blooming 50 Days Earlier than 14 Years Ago 0311  

Cuckoos Thrown Off by Climate Change 0910  

Flowering Plants Bloom Earlier with Warming 0410 - Average is about 3.5 days/decade earlier.

Earth Out of Sync - Earlier Springs, Later Falls 0310


Forests - in Retreat
Example from US Forest Service of projected US range loss - for sugar maple - with high emissions.
1 of MANY species, from 
http://www.fs.fed.us/nrs/atlas/tree/.  Habitat in 2100, but actual distribution will lag, as tree are long-lived.

Half of Alberta's Boreal Forest Could Disappear from Fires and Climate Change 0318

12,000 Square Miles of Australian Forest to Be Lost in 15 Years 0318

Vermont Forests Vulnerable to Climate Change 0218

Beech Booming as Climate Changes.  That’s Bad for Forests. 0218

Carbon Pricing Could Save Millions of Hectares of Tropical Forest 0218

Australian Trees ‘Sweat' (without Photosynthesis) to Survive Extreme Heat Waves 0118

With Climate Change, Tree Die-Offs May Spread in the West 1217

How Climate Change Is Impacting the American West Right Now 1217

Mangroves Lack the Genetic Diversity to Adapt to Climate Change 1217

Why the Forest Carbon Sink Is Disappearing - Death by 1,000 Cuts 0917

Swiss Trees Swelter as Climate Warms 0817

A Nebraska-Sized Area of Forest Disappeared in 2015 - 0717

California Forests Failing to Regrow After Intense Wildfires 1216

Amazon Rainforest Destruction Is Speeding Up, When Earth Can Least Afford It 1216

Unhealthy Forests Affect Distant Ecosystems 1216

Mapping Shows Extent of Alaska Yellow-Cedar Die-off, Forecasts big Losses 1116

Why India Is Becoming a Drier, Hotter and Angrier Country 1116

Deforestation Forces Up Brazil’s Carbon Emissions 1116

Balsam Fir May Disappear in New Brunswick, Due to Climate Change 0916

Turning up the Heat to Push Many Australian Plants to the Brink 0916

Rising Temperatures Stunt Tree Growth 0816

Drought Shut Down Amazon Carbon Sink 0716

Global Warming to Spur More Fires in Alaska, in Turn Causing More Warming 0516

Fort McMurray Blaze Set the Stage for Even Bigger, Hotter Wildfires 0516

Queensland's Mangrove Ecosystem Dying in Secret 0516

Let’s Save Uganda’s Disappearing Forests 0316

China's Success Regrowing Its Forests Has a Flip Side - Deforestation Elsewhere 0316

US Forests Struggle, as Drought and Climate Change Bite 0316

Africa’s Forests ‘Threatened by Palm Oil Rush' 0216

Drought’s Alarming Toll on California Forests 0216

California Drought Could Kill 58 Million Trees, Terrible News Future Water Supply 1215

Climate Change Could Cause a ‘Massive’ Tree Die-off in the US Southwest 1215 - 2°C is huge for trees.

More than Half the Amazon Tree Species Are at Risk of Extinction 1115

Forest Dieback Could Undermine U.S. Plans to Cut CO2 Emissions 1115

Indonesia Blazes Threaten Endangered Orangutans 1115

Climate Change, Wildfire Seen Transforming Northwest Forests 1015

US Forests Threatened, as Demand for Wood-Based Biofuels Grows 1015

Indonesian Fires Are Pouring Huge Amounts of Carbon into the Atmosphere 1015 - peat +.  CO2 > Germany's, Japan’s.

Alaskan Wildfires Could Make Global Warming Worse 1015.  Soils, permafrost too.

Rapid and Startling Decline of World’s Vast Boreal Forests 1015

Tinderbox of the World - the World’s Northern Forests 1015

Deforestation Halved over Past Decades 0915

Tree Loss Slows, but Covers Area Twice the Size of Portugal in 2014 - 0915

Northern Forests Face Onslaught from Heat and Drought 0815

Earth Is on Track to Lose an India-Sized Chunk of Tropical Forests by 2050 - 0815

Massive Wildfires Transform Siberian Paradise (by Lake Baikal) into Disaster Area 0815

The Forests of the World Are in Major Trouble 0815

Climate Change Is Forcing Boreal Forest to Tipping Point 0815

Haze Chokehold Spurring Efforts to Save Indonesia’s Forests 0815

Andes' Migrating Trees Are Moving towards Extinction 0815

Drought Damages Trees' Ability to Store Carbon 0715

Burning Olympics Rain Forest Raises Concern about Future 0715

Drought Kills 12 Million Trees in California's National Forests 0515

Global Warming Is Already Clobbering the Amazon 0415

Climate Change Threatens to Kill Off More Aspen Forests by 2050s - 0315

Pine Beetle Epidemic Spreads East Across Canada 0315

California’s Forests - Where Have All the Big Trees Gone? 0115

Moisture Shortfall, Heat Threaten Southwestern Forests 0115

The Southwest’s Most Important Number - Vapor Pressure Deficit 0115

Success of ‘Land Sparing' Will Depend on Global Economics, Regulations 1214

Beetles Ravaging Tucson's Big Pines 1214

Amazon Rainforest Losing Ability to Regulate Climate 1014

Amazon Deforestation Picking up Pace, Satellite Data Reveals 1014

Fewer Aspens in Colorado's Future 1014

Summer Heat, Invasive Insects Take Toll on Interior Alaska Birch Trees 1014

Climate Change affects Canada’s Northern Forests Faster than Global Average 0914

Brazil Says Amazon Deforestation Rate Up for First Time in Years 0914

Rockies' Pines, Firs Lose Majority of Habitat on Current Climate Path 0914

Canada Leads World in Forest Decline 0914

Will Iconic Sequoias Fall to Climate Change? 0814

Clearing in the Trees 0814 Congo, Indonesia, Brazil, Mexico, India, Costa Rica
   See 4 measures at R: deforest in % & sq km / yr; forest cover in % & sq km.

Japanese Red Cedars, etc. to Replace Britain's Oaks, Due to Climate Change 0814

Another Key Forest on Brink of Depletion by Loggers, Charcoal Burners 0814

Canada’s Boreal Forests Are Burning – and Releasing Loads of Carbon 0714

Deforestation, Drought Push Amazon Toward Destruction by Fire 0414

Climate Change, Coral Reefs, Deforestation and Dengue 0414

Sky-High Race Against Time for Amazon Biodiversity 1213

High Resolution Global Maps Show Increasing Forest Loss in Tropics 1113

Precarious Future Looms for Canada’s Great Inland Delta 1113

Key Mangrove Forest (in Bangladesh) Faces Major Threat from a Coal Plant 1013

Indonesia’s Forests Are Shrinking, Despite Reforms 1013

Global Warming Forecast for Amazon Rain Forest: Dry and Dying 1013

British Forests Under New Threat from Pests 1013

Saving the Great North Woods 1013

Deforestation Sparks Concern in Amazon 0813




   Brazil's deforestation rose 28% in 2012, from ~2,300 to 2,900 square miles.






Mega-Drought in US Southwest Is Bad Omen for Forests Globally 0613

Brazil Rain Forest Deforestation Leads to Seed Shrinkage 0513 

Sumatran Rainforest Will Mostly Disappear within 20 Years 0513

Climate Change Threatens Giant Sequoias 0313

Climate Change Thins Forests in Eastern US 0213  

How Warmed Trees Die of Thirst and Starve 1212 

Mighty Old Trees Are Perishing Fast 1212 

New England Hardwood Forests to Take Big Hit from Warming 1112 

Drought Puts Trees the World Over ‘At the Edge’ 1112 

Climate Change Killing Sahel Trees 1211

Insect Destruction of US Forests Rises 3-fold 0711  

Bugged Forests Bad for Climate 1210 

Steeper Decline of Mangrove Forests 0810 

Deforestation Takes 3 Stages per Patch 0810 

Aspens Die in West 1009

2°C Rise Would Trigger 20-40% Amazon Rainforest Die-off 0609

Amazon Forest Mostly Doomed 0309 

Forests Dying in US West from Climate Change 0109


Forests - General

American Trees Are Moving West, and No One Knows Why 0517

Drylands Greener with Forests than Previously Thought 0517

Canada’s Eastern Boreal Forest Could Become a Climate Change Refuge 0916

Warming Climate Causing Extensive Greening in Canada, Alaska 0616

China's Success Regrowing Its Forests Has a Flip Side - Deforestation Elsewhere 0316

China's Forest Conservation Program Shows Proof of Success 0316

Paris Climate Deal Could ‘Displace Millions of Forest Dwellers' 0216

Climate Change Means One World’s Death and Another’s Birth 0915

How Global Warming May Make Forests Shorter and Scrubbier 0515

Is This the End of Autumn as We Know It? 1014 - focus on timing and brilliance of leaf color changes

Deforestation - Brazil is a Success Story for Conservation 0814

Once Resilient, Trees In US West Now More Vulnerable To Fires 0713

Agro Forestry Greatly Improves Food Security 0613 

Maine Scientists Envision Changing Forests 0513 

Climate Change Effects Already Felt in Amazon Rainforest 0413  

Tropical Forests to Be Resilient to Climate Change 0313  

Warming Bringing Big Changes to US Forests 0213  

Is the Amazon Rainforest Drying Out? 1212 

West Africa Forest Biomass Grows Despite Drought 0812  

New GHG Source ID's - Decay in Living Trees 0812  

Columbus Cut Atmospheric CO2 Levels 1011

Faster Nitrogen Cycle in Forests Slows Global Warming 1011  

Forests Have a Tipping Point 1011

Tropical Forests Re-Shaped by Climate Change 0211  

Amazon Forest Could Shrink 85% by 2100 - Jones 0510 - PDF of 25 slides
       Projection below for Amazon shows 59% forest loss over 2 centuries.

     Sub-polar projections show 12-21% forest gain with +5°C.                Temperate ones show 8% gain to 11% loss.

Services of Coral Reefs, Forests Worth Trillions 1109

Trees Advance in Warmer World 0809

Climate Change Could Shrink Amazon Rainforest 85% 0309

Drought Turns Amazon Rainforest to CO2 Emitter 0309


Corals

Coral Reefs at Risk of Dissolving as Oceans Get More Acidic 0218

Coral Reefs Are Bleaching Too Frequently to Recover 0118

Damage to Its Coral Reefs Has Made Florida More Vulnerable to Storm Surges 0917

240-Year-Old Nautical Maps Show Coral Loss Is Much Worse than We Knew 0917

World's Northernmost Coral Reef Bleached in Japan 0717

Floods, Reef Loss and Migration - Asia's Future on a Hotter Planet 0717

The Great Barrier Reef Is a Treasure Worth $42 Billion 0617

US Coral Reefs Are on Course to Disappear within Decades 0517

Great Barrier Reef 2050 Plan No Longer Achievable, due to Climate Change 0517

Loss of Coral Reefs from Warming Seas Could Cost $1 Trillion Globally 0417

Great Barrier Reef - 2/3 Damaged in ‘Unprecedented' Bleaching 0417

Coral Reefs' Only Hope Is Halting Global Warming, Study Says 0317

Global Coral Die-Off 0317

Great Barrier Reef Bleached for Unprecedented 2nd Year Running 0317

Coral Bleaching Kills 70% of Japan’s Biggest Coral Reef 0117

Great Barrier Reef Not Likely to Survive if Warming Trend Continues 1216

Why the Death of Coral Reefs Could Be Devastating for Millions of Humans 1116

Northern Great Barrier Reef Coral Bleaching Damage Worse, Surveys Show 1016

Global Coral Bleaching Event Might Become New Normal, Expert Warns 0916

Climate Change Unleashes Ghostly Death on Great Barrier Reef 0916

Sections of Great Barrier Reef Suffer Complete Ecosystem Collapse 0716 - Most fish populations plummet or vanish.

Global Coral Bleaching Event to Hit U.S. Hard, with No End in Sight 0616

Coral Reefs Doing Better Than Expected in Many Areas 0616 - where they are not otherwise impacted by humans

Sad Truth - Great Barrier Reef May Never Rebound to Previous Health 0516

1/3 of Central, Northern Great Barrier Reef Corals Dead 0516

Coral Species May Find Respite from Bleaching More than 40 Meters Below 0516

India’s Coral Reefs Experiencing Widespread Bleaching 0516

Florida’s Coral Reef Is Disintegrating 0516

Coral Bleaching Spreads from Great Barrier Reef to Western Australia 0416

93% of Australia's Great Barrier Reef Is Bleaching 0416

Climate-Related Death of Coral around World Alarms Scientists 0416

Link between Fossil Fuels and Great Barrier Reef Bleaching Is Incontrovertible 0316

Severe Coral Bleaching Worsens in Most Pristine Parts of Great Barrier Reef 0316

Longest Global Coral Bleaching on Record Isn’t Over Yet 0216

Coral Bleach Impact 0216 - 25-30% mortality so far in Fiji during this El Niño

Christmas Island Corals Aren’t Just Bleaching from El Niño.  They’re Dying. 1215

Abrupt Changes in Food Chains Predicted as Southern Ocean Acidifies Fast 1115 -
     Pteropods, a food webbase , can’t form shells.

Pacific Ocean Becomes a Cauldron 1115 - 3rd great cral bleaching event is under way.

Dramatic Worldwide Coral Bleaching Event Is Now Underway 1015

World's Richest Reef System Could Soon Succumb to Climate Change – WWF 0915

3rd Recorded Global Coral Bleaching Event May Be Underway 0915

Great Barrier Reef Species More at Risk from Climate Change 0815

Scientists Warn that 2°C Target Is Not Enough to Protect Corals, Marine Life 0815

Australia's Deep-Sea Coral Reefs Could Be Dead within 50 Years 0615

How Corals Could Survive a Warming Planet.  (But What about Acidity?) 0615

Global Warming Fuels Coral Killer 0215

Warmer Waters Help Starfish Thrive and Devour the Great Barrier Reef 0215

To Save Coral Reefs, First Save the Mangroves 0215

Genetically Modified Coral Could Help Save Reefs 0215

Something Really, Really Terrible Is About to Happen to Our Coral 0115    coral stress maps: 1998 below, 2015 below that

‘Doomed’ Corals to Face Worst Bleaching in Decades 1214

Great Barrier Reef Protection Plan ‘Ignores the Threat of Climate Change' 1014

Great Barrier Reef - 'a Massive Chemistry Experiment Gone Wrong’ 1014

Panama’s Coral Reefs Ringed with Threats 1014

Caribbean Coral Reefs ‘Will be Lost Within 20 Years’ 0714

Climate Change, Coral Reefs, Deforestation and Dengue 0414

Coral Reefs Die as Ocean Water Warms and Turns Acid 0613 

Coal Boom Could Destroy Great Barrier Reef 0513

Particulates from Fossil Fuels Affect Coral Growth 0413

Warming Favors Soft Corals Over Hard Reef-Building Corals 0313

Australia's Coal to Destroy Great Barrier Reef 0313

Booming Coal Exports Threaten Great Barrier Reef 0213 

Caribbean Coral Reefs Ready to Shrink 0113

Half of Great Barrier Reef Coral Lost in Last 27 Years 1012 

World’s Coral Reefs Can No Longer Be Saved 0712 

Coral Reefs Move North 1111

Coral Reefs Head for Fishing & Climate Crisis 0211  

Coral Reef Future Is Bleak - Hoegh-Guldberg 0111 - PDF

Warming Kills Up to 80% of Corals in Indian Ocean 1010

Heated Oceans Endanger Coral Reefs 0910   Red high risk, blue low, yellow medium

See map of acid effect on coral reefs on Ocean Acidity section of Water page.

Coral Reef Deaths Soar in Record Ocean Heat 0710

Warming Slows Red Sea Coral Growth 0710

Services of Coral Reefs, Forests Worth Trillions 1109

Outlook Poor for Great Barrier Reef 0909

19% of Coral Reefs Gone, Rest Going 1208


Aquatic Life - Ocean & Other

'Game Changer' - New Vulnerability to Climate Change in Ocean Food Chain 0318

Seagrass Meadows Are Vital, but in Serious Decline 0218

Decline in Krill Threatens Antarctic Wildlife, from Whales to Penguins 0218

Death by Killer Algae 1117

As Oceans Warm, the World’s Kelp Forests Begin to Disappear 1117

Failing Phytoplankton, Failing Oxygen - Global Warming Could Suffocate Life on Earth 1215

Box Jellyfish Will Destroy Ocean Ecosystems by Gobbling Up the Food 0917

Warming Planet Is Hazard to Fish, via Increased Salinity and Algal Blooms 0917

Hot Spots in a Freezing Ocean Offer Lessons in Climate Change 0817

Where's the Kelp?  Warm Ocean Takes Toll on Undersea Forests 0817

Climate Change May Shrink the World’s Fish 0817

Gulf of Mexico Dead Zone Is the Largest Ever, Size of New Jersey 0817

Climate Change Will Worsen Nitrogen Runoff, Algae and Dead Zones 0717

Deep Sea Life Faces Dark Future due to Warming and Food Shortage 0217 - less food from above; triple whammy of less oxygen, more acid, and too warm (rate 1,000s of times what deep seas have seen)

Warmer Oceans Encouraging 2 New Phytoplankton Groups 0117

Pacific Warm Water “Blob” Contributed to a Record Toxic Algae Bloom 1216

Global Warming Alters Arctic Food Chain, with Unforeseeable Results 1116

Ocean Slime Spreading Quickly Across the Earth 0816

Warming Could Mean More Algae Blooms Like Florida’s 0716

Ocean Warming due to Plankton Collapse 0616

CO2 Causing 'Intoxication' of Ocean Fish Sooner than Expected 0116

Pacific Shellfish Set for Price Hike, as Ocean Acidity Keeps Rising 0116

Abrupt Changes in Food Chains Predicted as Southern Ocean Acidifies Fast 1115

Marine Food Chains at Risk of Collapse, Extensive Oceans Study Finds 1015

Climate Change Could Push These Tiny Marine CyanoBacteria to Evolve - Irreversibly 0915

Great Barrier Reef Species More at Risk from Climate Change 0815

Too Warm, Too Few Fish - Health Warning for World’s Oceans 0815

Ocean Acidification Threatens Balance of Plankton Species - Why That Matters 0715

Tropical Fish Are Genetically Adapting to Cope with Warmer Waters 0715

Seaweed Might Have the Power to Make the Oceans Less Acidic 0515

Dead Zones - Where Animals Suffocate and Die - Found in Atlantic Open Waters 0415

The Changing Tide 0415

Lobster Growth Rates Declining 0415

Sea Urchins Work Overtime to Cope with Rising Ocean Acidity 0315

Climate Change Can Skew Fish Gender Ratios 0315

Massive Ocean Oxygen Loss from Melting Ice, Warming, 10-17 Millennia Ago 0115

Examining How Marine Life Might Adapt to Acidified Oceans 0514

Warmer Water Linked to More Mercury in Fish 1013

Algal Blooms Causing Concern in Northern Lakes 1013

Toxic Algal Blooms and Warming Waters: the Climate Connection 0913

Warming Lake Superior Prompts a Tribe to Try a New Fish 1013

As Antarctic Sea Ice Melts, Seaweed Smothers Seafloor 0813

Ocean Microbes Feel a Warming Climate’s Effects 0713  

78% Drop in Coastal Fish Over 40 Years Off California 0713

Jellyfish Surge in Mediterranean 0613

Slippery Slope to Slime 0413

Dead Zones Warming Extinguished Most Species 180 Mya 0213

Climate Change May Shrink Fish 0912

Ocean Acidification Threatens Food Security 0912  

Volcanic Vents Model CO2 Acid Future - 30% Biodiversity Loss 0212

UK Warming Replaces Cold-Water Fish with Warm 0911

Oceans Are Dying 0610

Fish Shrink Due to Climate Change 0709

Acid Ocean Thins Marine Shells 0409 

Warming Drives Jellyfish Explosion 0808

Warm Seas Hurt Plankton 1206 

Adding CO2 Damages Ocean Life 0706 

Acid Ocean Destroys Diatoms 0406


Pests

Death by Killer Algae 1117 - oceans

250,000 Football Fields of Green Algae Now Cover Lake Erie 1017

Why the Arctic’s Mosquito Problem Is Getting Bigger, Badder 0817

How Global Warming Is Making the Nitrogen Problem Worse 0817

Climate Change Is Making Algal Blooms Worse 0417

Global Warming Could Bring Rise in Toxic Shellfish That Can Lead to Memory Loss and Potentially Kill 0117

Pacific Warm Water “Blob” Contributed to a Record Toxic Algae Bloom 1216

The Pacific Blob Caused an Unprecedented Toxic Algal Bloom; More Is Coming 0916

Toxic Algal Bloom Explodes in Chesapeake Bay This Summer 0916

Exotic Ticks Appear to Be Establishing Themselves in Alaska 0816

Pests and Drought Hit Nigeria's Tomato Farms 0716

Warming Could Mean More Algae Blooms Like Florida’s 0716

Toxic Algae May Become Common on British Columbia Coast 0316

Argentina Scrambles to Fight Biggest Plague of Locusts in 60 Years 0116

Rising Lake Temperatures May Worsen Algae Blooms 1215

In Warming Arctic, Mosquitoes May Live Long and Prosper 0915

The New War on Lyme and Other Tick-Borne Diseases 0815

Heavier Rains Mean More Toxic Blooms for Lake Erie 0715

Flooding May Spur Algae in Lake Erie 0715

Pine Beetle Epidemic Spreads East Across Canada 0315

Hay Fever Season Becoming Longer, More Intense with Climate Change 0215

Earth’s Fresh-Water Resources at Risk 0115

'Ticked Off' Report Shows People Increasingly Bugged by Outdoor Pests 0814

In New Jersey Pines, Trouble Arrives on 6 Legs 1213

Jellyfish Winning the Fight for Food - Against Humans 1113

Killer Hornets Wreak Havoc in China 1013

Algal Blooms Causing Concern in Northern Lakes 1013

Climate Change Making Poison Ivy Grow Bigger & Badder 0713

Climate Change Blamed for Growing Allergy Problems 0613 

Climate Change Linked to More Pollen, Allergies, Asthma 0513  

Locust Plagues Point to Climate Change’s Grim Future 0513  

Cicadas Swarming US East Coast Are Climate Change Veterans 0513  

Warming May Mean More Toxic Algae Blooms for Lake Erie 0413  

Climate Change Raises Locust Threat 0313  

Global Warming Brings on More Pollen 0313  

Harmful Algae Blooms Increase as World Lakes Warm 0113 

Warming Doubles Tree-Killing Beetles 0312 - Map below from US Forest Service, not just beetles.  The 3 graphs show affected areas by pest species on vertical axis, using a logarithmic scale.

Pollen Allergies Soar as Temperature Rises 0410

Warming Has Boosted Insect Breeding 1209

Warming Drives Jellyfish Explosion 0808s


Misc.

Climate Change Might Lower Salaries 1217

7 Surprising Effects That Climate Change Will Throw Us 1117

9 Reasons Global Warming Is Great, According to a Texas Republican 0717

Climate Change Could Turn Africa's Sahel Lush and Green in Our Lifetimes 0717

When It’s Hot, Plants Become a Surprisingly Large Source of Air Pollution 0517

As the Planet Gets Hotter, Some Mammals May Get Smaller 0317

Reindeer Shrink in Arctic, as Climate Changes 1216

Save the Animals, Save the Planet? 0816 - Restoring predators can restore balance among plant species in ecosystems.

Secret World under the Snow Is in Trouble 0116

Earth Has Lost 1/3 of Arable Land in Past 40 Years 1215

Climate Change Means One World’s Death and Another’s Birth 0915

Economists Warn of Less (Human) Sex on a Warmer Planet 1115

Global Warming, Evolution Are Clipping Bees' Tongues 0915

Another Side Effect of Climate Change and El Niño Events?  Shorter Human Kids. 1114

‘Green Revolution’ Brings Greater CO2 Swings 1114

Mountain Goats Are Shrinking – a Lot – Due to Global Warming 1014

Climate Change Could Alter the Human Male-Female Ratio 0914

Warming Could Bring Snakes as Long as Buses, Horses the Size of Cats 1113

Tibet - Life on the Climate Front Line 0813 - also available elsewhere

Carbon Acidification Could Harm Great Lakes Wildlife 0713

In Mekong Delta, Rice Boom Has Steep Environmental Cost 0713

Floating Tubes Test Sea-Life Ecosystems’ Sensitivity to Acidification 0613

Warming Bad for Life in Freshwater Lakes and Rivers 0613

Measuring Plankton Decline 0213  

Wiping Out Top Predators Messes Up the Climate 0213  

Warming to Stratify Arctic Ocean 0213

Honey Harvest Devastated by Wet Summer 1012 

Warming Turns Tundra Shrubs into Trees 0612  

How Mild Winters Affect Environment Ecosystems 0112

Warming Alters River Ecosystems a Lot 1010  

Pollination Crisis in India 0910

Excess CO2 Starves Plants of Nitrogen Nutrients 0510

by Gene Fry 2017