Carbon + & -

     Below are files - articles mostly - about carbon sources & sinks, arranged in 4 major groups: Rising Sources, Rising Sinks, Fading Sinks, and Others.  Rising Sources are Permafrost, Seabed Methane Hydrates, Oil & Gas Extraction (tar sands, fracking ,etc.), and Misc.  Rising carbon sinks include Soils, Rock, Ocean Algae, Other Ocean, Forests, and Scrub from Air (a technique to be combined with sinks).  Fading Carbon Sinks include Oceans, Soils, Forests, Biofuel Problems, and General.

     Month and year follow each article's name.  PDF files are so marked, after month and date, some with authors noted.  Within sections, more recent files appear above older files.

     Fossil fuel flux (rate) and change in reservoir size are more than a decade old.


map from NASA, May 2011 - in metric tonnes of carbon per hectare.  About 250 hectares per square mile.  Mg = tonnes.
may be for above-ground carbon only

     Permafrost covers 1/6 to 1/4 of northern hemisphere land surface, 15-25 million square kilometers.  Its top 10 feet hold ~ 1.9 trillion tons of carbon.  That's 1,200 tonnes (Mg) / hectare (120 kg/sq m, 12 g/sq cm): 6-7 times what NASA shows for tropical rainforests.  Mongabay et al. estimate 168-420 (µ 302) Mg / hectare for various tropical rainforests, a bit more than NASA..

Below is world soil organic carbon density (tons/hectare, as above).
USDA: Natural Resource Conservation Service, 2000.
Soil carbon densities for most of Russia, Siberia, Europe, Alaska, and Canada exceed total tropical ones for soil + trees.

via http://eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esdb_archive/eusoils_docs/other/EUR25225.pdf, p. 57


     Albedo measures reflection.
% change from average (mean, µ) , from American Meteorological Association (full study available on Overviews page).

     The trend is that Earth is getting darker.  This is consistent with ice loss.


Scientists Have Long Feared Soil Climate ‘Feedback’.  Now It’s Happening. 1116 - more than just permafrost soils

Global CO2 Emissions Still Accelerating, even as Human Ones Level Off 0516 

     The increase in CO2 levels in the air is accelerating, even as human CO2 emissions from fossil fuels are leveling off.
     This suggests some combination of fading carbon sinks in the ocean and the land biosphere, with rising emissions from natural sources - permafrost, 
forest fires, methane hydrates, and peat fires - as well as agriculture and land use changes.

Carbon Dioxide Removal and Reliable Sequestration - NAS 0215 - PDF, 155 pp

     Soil lost 230 GT of carbon over the past 10,000 years, due to land conversion and land use.  This comparesw to 365 GT added from burning fossil fuels.  Feasible soil carbon sequestration, by moving carbon from the air back into soil, is estimated (to 2065) at 30-50 GT of carbon.
     Other major methods to sequester significant amounts of carbon include accelerated rock weathering (almost as much potential), ocean iron fertilization (very costly, with 90-300 GT potential), bio-energy with carbon capture (100-1,000 GT), direct air capture, and sequestration for the 2 capture-only methods.  Cost estimates range from $1 to $1,000 per tonne of CO2 removed, depending on the method, with wide estimates for each method.


Rising Carbon Sources - Permafrost

The Arctic’s Carbon Bomb Might Be Even More Potent than We Thought 0318

Ancient Carbon Coming from Arctic Soil Might Be Fine, Might Be Terrible 0318

Is There a Ticking Time Bomb under the Arctic? 0118

Unearthing the Secrets of Soil 1117

Giant Craters in Canada's Melting Permafrost Impacting Climate Change 0817

Alaska’s Permafrost Is Thawing 0817

Methane Seeps Out as Arctic Permafrost Starts to Resemble Swiss Cheese 0717

Arctic Stronghold of World’s Seeds Flooded after Permafrost Melts 0517

Thawing Alaska Permafrost Sends Autumn CO2 Emissions Surging 0517

Permafrost Thaw in Canadian Arctic Is Sign of Global Trend 0417

Global Warming Could Thaw Far More Permafrost Than Expected 0417 - unfrozen area increases a lot

Siberia's Growing 'Doorway to Hell' Offers Clues on Climate Change 0317

Massive Permafrost Thaw in Canada Portends Huge Carbon Release 0217

Arctic Soils Set to Release Lots of Carbon, More than Plants Can Absorb 1216

'It's a Lit Fuse -' Release of Ancient Carbon from Melting Permafrost Measured 0816

Forest Fires Can Heat Up the Whole Planet 0616 - Northern (boreal) forest fires put carbon in the air not only from standing trees, but also from peat, while they thaw permafrost, for still more carbon emissions.

Permafrost Soil under North Slope Lakes Is about to Thaw 0616

New ‘Gateway to the Underworld’ Crater in Siberia Warns of Warming Planet 0616

We Could Be Underestimating Arctic Methane Emissions 1215

Here’s How Much of Alaska’s Permafrost Could Melt 1215

Runaway Global Warming Becomes a Concern, as Permafrost Melts 1115

Permafrost Warming in Parts of Alaska ‘Is Accelerating' 1015

Permafrost Methane Release Could Trigger Dangerous Global Warming 1015

Massive Wildfires by Lake Baikal Send Soot to Arctic, Greenland 0815  Thawed permafrost burns, sending CO2 into the air.

Alaska's Permafrost Threatened by Intense Fires as Climate Changes 0815

Beneath Alaskan Wildfires, a Hidden Threat- Long-Frozen Carbon's Thaw 0715

Thawing Arctic Carbon Threatens ‘Runaway' Global Warming 0515

Microbes Play Villainous Role in Arctic Climate Change 0415

Thawing Arctic Soils May Release 10 x the Carbon That Burning Fossil Fuels Did 0415

Permafrost Holds Key to Release of Trapped Carbon 0415

Scientists Confirm Arctic Could Become Major New Carbon Emissions Source 0415

Russian Scientists Blame Climate Change for Mysterious Siberia Craters 0315

Siberian Crater Saga Is More Widespread and Scarier Than Anyone Thought 0215

Climate Change Is Accelerating the Melting of Siberia 0215

Siberian Methane Release is on the Rise 1214

Melting Permafrost Threatens Infrastructure, Homes 1214

Tracking the Fate of Ancient Carbon in the Siberian Arctic 1114

Permafrost Carbon Emissions Measured - a Whole Other Problem 1014

Melting Permafrost May Stabilize Global Long-Term Temperatures 0714

Arctic Methane Emissions ‘Certain to Trigger Warming’ 0514

How Taking the 'Perma' Out of Permafrost Could Accelerate Global Warming 0414

Alaska Sinks, as Climate Change Thaws Permafrost 1213

Climate Downgrade- Planetary Feedbacks 1112

Warming Spike - Siberian Stalagmites Show Permafrost Peril 0613

Policy Implications of Warming Permafrost - UN, Schaefer 0413 - PDF, 38 pp

     About 24% of the Northern Hemisphere's land surface was covered by permafrost in 1997.  See north polar-view map at left.


     Permafrost areas contain 3 to 7 times as much carbon per square meter, give or take, as tropical rainforest areas do.  Exact ratios depends on the particular forest, the particular tundra, & the estimation method.


     Moreover, worldwide soils contain about 3 times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or above-ground biomass. (Kane 2012)  2/3 of it is in permafrost.

     In permafrost areas, almost all carbon is below ground, while in tropical rainforests, almost all is above ground.  In between, carbon % is similar above and below ground.
     Forests store more carbon above ground, while grasslands store more carbon below grrond.

     Decomposition of organic material by soil microbes (except in farm fields) increases more than linearly as temperatures rise.  This is a major reason why permafrost stores more carbon /
 acre than tropical rainforests.

    The 2nd north polar view map, left, shows the distribution of frozen organic matter, in grams of carbon per square centimeter (cm2), NOT kilograms (kg).
     Permafrost regions contain 1,700-1,900 trillion tonnes of carbon (to 1 meter deep), in the form of frozen organic matter, nearly 2 x that currently in the atmosphere (Tarnocai 
et al. 2009, updated by Hugelius et al. 2012).









     This model projection indicates a 59% loss in near-surface permafrost area by 2100 for the IPCC A1B scenario.  The dark grey regions show where taliks may form and permafrost in the top 15 meters of soil may completely thaw (Schaefer et al. 2011).









CO
2 and methane (CH4) emissions from thawing permafrost can continue for decades or even centuries, as seen in this plot of estimated annual permafrost emissions in CO2 equivalent for the IPCC A1B scenario.  Here, anthropogenic emissions stop in 2100, but permafrost CO2 and methane emissions continue well past 2200 (Schaefer et al. 2011).
     Peak permafrost emissions are ~9% of today's human emissions (33 Gt/yr).

IPCC 5th Assessment, Technical Summary




Northern Hemisphere total

from US National Climate Assessment, 2013






     Projection for average yearly ground temperature at 3.3-foot (1-meter) depth over time, if heat-trapping gases continue to grow (higher A2 emissions scenario), and if they are substantially reduced (lower B1 emissions scenario).

     
Blue shades represent areas below freezing (where permafrost is present at the surface), while yellow and red shades represent areas above freezing (permafrost-free at the surface) (Markon et al. 2012).


Permafrost 2: MacDougall

Permafrost Carbon Emissions to 2300 - MacDougall 0912 - PDF


Changes in the size of each Earth system carbon pool in response to the addition of permafrost carbon to the UVic ESCM.  That is, the difference in the size of each carbon pool between simulations with and without permafrost carbon.  All values are relative to the size of the frozen permafrost carbon pool.  A summation of all the pools adds up to 100% for each year.  Results are given for two emissions pathways (DEPs 4.5 and 8.5) and for 3 climate sensitivities to a doubling of CO2 (2.0, 3.0, and 4.5°C).  Soil layers that thaw, but are subsequently returned to a permafrost state, continue to be administered by the active soil carbon pool, leading to the apparent high rate of transfer of carbon to the active soil carbon pool in the 20th century.

     Permafrost (not including whatever is under the ice in Greenland and Antarctica) holds about twice as much carbon as the atmosphere does today.  In the worst case shown, if current net carbon sinks fail, atmospheric CO2 levels could double from permafrost alone.  Then add the effect of human carbon emissions.

     Strangely enough, the additional temperature effect of permafrost emissions is not highest in the highest human emission scenario (DEP 8.5), but in the intermediate scenarios.  The simplest reason is that CO2 in the air warms the air at a diminishing rate; with more CO2 molecules in the air, the chances are higher that one at a lower altitude will intercept outgoing radiation before one at a higher altitude gets a chance.

Permafrost Carbon Emissions, Supplement - MacDougall 0912 - PDF

Modeled Future Permafrost Extent



       Anomaly in CO2 concentration with respect to baseline runs with no permafrost carbon, for each DEP.  Which climate sensitivity is assumed in not clear.








Permafrost 3

Arctic Thawing Detection Tool - Stanford 0213

Thawing Permafrost May Be Huge Emissions Source 0213

Survey of Permafrost Thaw & Carbon Release 0213 - PDF

Slumping Arctic Soils Emit Significant CO2 0213

Siberian Permafrost Thaw Warning from Paleo Cave Data 0213

Thawing Permafrost to Double Carbon in Air 0113

How Much Carbon Is Released into the Atmosphere by Thawing Permafrost 0113

Ticking Arctic Carbon Bomb May Be Bigger Than Thought 1212

UN Fears Permafrost Thaw Means Runaway Warming 1112 

At the Edge of Disaster 1112

Squeezing the Carbon Balloon - Kane 1112 - PDF - for 2 adjacent plots in northern Sweden


     The tundra-heath stores about 7.1 kilograms of carbon per square meter (6.2+0.8), while the birch forest stores about 4.6 kg (2.1+2.5) of carbon / sq m.  The tundra-heath plot is on same hillside as the birch forest, 4 kilometers southeast and 190 meters higher.

     As tundra systems give way to birch forest, more ecosystem carbon is in aboveground pools, but with a net loss of total ecosystem carbon.  Below-ground carbon pools dwarf above-ground pools, especially if one considers carbon deeper in the soil….


2012 Swedish Plots - Hartley 1112  - PDF

     This complements and discusses Kane's study, in the same edition of Nature Climate Change.




Permafrost Carbon to Emit Up to 508 Billion Tons of Carbon by 2100, Warm Earth 1.69°C 0912

Antarctic May Host Methane Stores 0812                      

Permafrost Emissions to Accelerate Warming Beyond Previous Projections 1211

Methane Releases Could Push Earth Past Tipping Point by 2030 0711

Siberian Tundra Methane Time Bomb 1110

Arctic Permafrost Methane Releases Set Records 0310

Permafrost Methane Emissions Up 31% 0110

Peat Under the Icy North 1209

Peat CO2 Emissions & Credits 1109  

Warming Speeds Tundra Carbon Release 0809 

Permafrost Thawing Grows 0709 

Carbon in Permafrost 4x Cum Emissions - Tamocai 0709 - PDF

Permafrost Thaw CH4 Release Complex 0509

Arctic Meltdown Poses Global Threat 0309  

Carbon in Permafrost 0307 

Permafrost Methane Release Accelerated 0906

PETM Permafrost

Thawing Permafrost Led to Extreme Global Warming 0412 - summary of study below

Antarctic Permafrost Drove PETM - DeConto 0412 - PDF
     "Between about 55.5 and 52 million years ago, Earth experienced a series of sudden and extreme warming events (hyperthermals) superimposed on a long-term warming trend.  The first and largest of these events ... (PETM) is characterized by a massive input of carbon, ocean acidification and an increase in global temperatue of about 5°C within a few thousand years."
     "...the magnitude and timing of the PETM and subsequent hyperthermals can be explained by the orbitally triggered decomposition of soil organic carbon in circum-Arctic and Antarctic terrestrial permafrost.  This massive carbon reservoir had the potential to repeatedly release thousands of [billions of tonnes] of carbon to the atmosphere-ocean system, once a … threshold had been reached...."

    "These results show the potential for high-latitude climate forcing to trigger massive terrestrial carbon release, initiating positive warming feedbacks that can account for the sudden and high elevations of past hyperthermals."

(Xerophytic plants, such as cactus, are adapted to live with very little water.)

     At 400 ppm (not shown), global mean surface temperature is ~14.6°C, about the same as today.  At 900 ppm CO2 (top & middle 4 panels of 6), global mean surface temperature is 6°C warmer than today and Antarctic summers are too warm to allow glaciation.  But ~9/10 as much permafrost remains in high latitudes of both hemispheres (top panel, not middle) as in Earth's total modern inventory, NOT counting modern Greenland and Antarctica, where most permafrost was then.
     In the model, the warming-permafrost positive feedback loop eliminates 97-98% of the initial permafrost inventory (bottom 2 panels), releasing ~3,400 billion tons af carbon within 10,000 years [~10 times what humans have released from fossil fuels].  This raises global mean surface temperature another 6°C, leaving 2,680 ppm of CO2 in the air (see bottom left panel).

     In the bottom panel, which features 2,680 ppm CO2 and is ~12°C warmer than today, dry vegetation types (scrub and cactus) cover most of Africa (replacing much savanna), South America (replacing savanna and tropical deciduous woodland), and Southeast Asia (replacing tropical broadleaf forest).  Warm and temperate deciduous and mixed deciduous-conifer forests cover much of Antarctica and most of Siberia and Canada, replacing most cold conifer forests.


Rising Carbon Sources - Methane Hydrates

Untapped “Fossil” Methane Hydrates Could Save or Ruin Our Climate 0518

Scientists Document an Ancient Arctic Methane Explosion 0617

Soaring Ocean Temperature Is ‘Greatest Hidden Challenge of Our Generation' 0916

Climate Change Mitigation’s Best-Kept Secret - Methane 0115

Alarm over Kara Sea Permafrost Thawing 0115

Warming Ocean May Be Triggering Mega Methane Leaks Off Northwest Coast 1214

Widespread Methane Leakage from Ocean Floor off US Coast 0814

Methane Plumes Seep From Frozen Ocean Floors 0814

Arctic Seafloor Methane Releases Double Previous Estimates 1113

How Fiery Ice Could Power Asia 0313

Warming Gulf Stream Destabilizes Methane Hydrates Off US Coast 1012

Seismic Signs of Escaping Methane Off US East Coast 1012  

Methane Hydrates and Global Warming 0812 

Huge Methane Plumes Escape Arctic Ocean 1211  

Methane Hydrate Releases from Arctic Shelf Grow Large 0310  

Methane Seeps from Arctic Sea Bed 0809  

More Seabed Methane Seepage Startles Scientists 0109  

Big Arctic Seabed Methane Releases 1008 

Rising Carbon Sources - Permafrost + Methane Hydrates (Jointly)

Scientists Confirm Arctic Could Become Major New Carbon Emissions Source 0415

Do Siberia’s Methane Blow-holes Warn of Unstoppable Climate Change? 0714

Methane Poses Huge Climate Threat to Earth 0414

Huge Arctic Methane Belch Could Cost Us $60 Trillion 0713 

Arctic Methane Release Time Bomb 0712

Message from the Arctic Methane Emergency Group (AMEG) 0712 - PDF

Arctic Melt Releasing Ancient Methane 0512  

Big Arctic Methane Release 0111 

Comment - Shakova Overestimated Problem 0910 - PDF

Arctic Methane Releases Set Records 0310

Warming Accelerates Methane Releases 0110  

Arctic Melt Drives Big Methane Rise 1108  


Rising Carbon Sources - Oil & Gas Leaks+

Methane Seeps Out as Arctic Permafrost Starts to Resemble Swiss Cheese 0717

Replacing Old Gas Pipes Reduces Leaks 0915

Gas Utilities Reduce Methane Leaks 0315

Siberian Crater Saga Is More Widespread and Scarier Than Anyone Thought 0215

Study Finds Relatively Low Methane Emissions from 3 Major US Gas Fields 0215

Climate Change Mitigation’s Best-Kept Secret - Methane 0115

Cities May be Leaking More Heat-Trapping Methane Than Previously Thought 0115

Boston Belching Gigantic Gobs of Greenhouse Gas 0115

Activists Say Obama Action on Methane Emissions ‘Misses 90% of Pollution’ 0115

L.A. Basin Methane Emissions Found up to 61% Higher than Estimates 0115

Accounting For Methane Emissions From Oil And Gas Wells 0115

Leaking City Gas Pipes Pose Climate Hazard 1214

Scientists Refute Lower Emissions Claim for Fracking 1014

Huge Methane Emissions ‘Hot Spot’ Found in Southwest US 1014

Fracking’s Methane Emissions Fell 70% from 2011 to 2013 - 0914

EPA May Force Drillers to Cut Methane Leaks, Chief Says  0914

Another Study Points to Climate Harm from Gas Drilling 0514

EIP Announces Hidden Climate Change Impact to Fracking Boom 1213

Solving the Case of California's Extra Methane 0513

A Global Look at Methane Emissions from Oil and Gas 0213 

EPA Sees Fracking as #2 GHG Source 0213  

Methane Leaks Erode Green Credentials of Natural Gas 0113  

Excess CH4 Near Fracking in Australia 1112  

Oil Sands to Undo Canada GHG Cuts 0811  

Natural Gas from Shale Contributes to Global Warming 0411 

Rising Carbon Sources - Misc.

Marine Heat Wave Set Off 'Carbon Bomb' in World's Largest Seagrass Meadow 0318

In California’s Wildfires, a Looming Threat to Climate Goals 1217

El Niño Might Speed Up Climate Change 1217

El Niño’s Warning - Satellite Shows How Forest CO2 Emissions Can Skyrocket 1017

Baltic Sea Clams 'Giving Off as Much Gas as 20,000 Cows' 1017

There’s a Climate Bomb Under Your Feet 1017

A Solution to the Atmosphere’s Methane Mystery? 0917

Volcanic Eruptions Triggered Global Warming 56 Million Years Ago 0817

Tropical Peat Forests Risk Turning from Carbon ‘Drains' to Emitters 0617

Frozen Farmers’ Fields Emit Nitrous Oxide, a Climate Change Culprit 0417

Soil Microbes Hold Key to Climate Puzzle 0317 - Complex soil ecosystems harbor carbon sinks and sources.

Small Ponds Have Big Impact on Global Warming 0217

Arctic Soils Set to Release Lots of Carbon, More than Plants Can Absorb 1216 - Global soil can release 55 billion tons of carbon by 2050.  Take 2 on study

Scientists Have Long Feared Soil Climate ‘Feedback’.  Now It’s Happening. 1116 - more than just permafrost soils - take 1

Soil Could Become Significant CO2 Contributor in Near Future 1116

How Earth Will Pay Back Our Carbon Emissions with Even More - from Peat, etc. 1016

Reservoirs Now Recognized a Key Source of Greenhouse Gas Methane 0916 - rotting vegetation drowned by reservoirs

Zombie Carbon Emissions Haunt the Planet 0716 - carbon from trees rotting that were killed by drought

Russian Wildfires Put Key Climate Change Resource at Risk 0716

These Peat Fires Are Huge, Hidden and Harmful.  What Can We Do? 0616

Fort McMurray Fire’s Stunning Pulse of Carbon to the Atmosphere 0516

To Help Curb Climate Change, Stop Wasting Food 0416

Is Climate Change Putting the World's Micro-Biomes at Risk? 0316

Indonesia's Peat Fires Make It World’s 4th-Largest Carbon Emitter 1015

Why Scientists Are So Worried about Drylands (40% of Earth’s Land) 0915

Climate Models May Misjudge Soils' Carbon Emissions 0815

Coal Renaissance Means Switching to Plan B - Carbon Pricing and CO2 Removal 0715

The Complex Relationship between Agriculture and Climate Change 0715

Dairy Straits 0415

World's Plants and Soils to Switch from Carbon Sink to Source by 2100 - 0415  - Limits to other nutrients are important.

     Maps of carbon storage on land. Upper map shows historical levels of storage (1860-69).

     Lower map shows model projections of the change in storage by 2100 as a result of nitrogen and phosphorus limits, under a high emissions scenario (RCP8.5). Source: Wieder et al. (2015). 


Below, Pg = billion tons (GT).  Fossil fuel emissions to date are 300-400 GT (Pg).


     Change in land carbon storage projections from CMIP5 (Coupled Model Intercomparison Project Phase 5) models, under a high emissions scenario (RCP8.5). Coloured lines show average model projection for no nutrient constraints (black), limits to nitrogen (red), and limits to nitrogen and phosphorus (blue). Box plots on right-hand side show range in model results. Source: Wieder et al. (2015). 

Obama Tackles Agriculture’s Role in Climate Change - Why That’s a Big Deal 0415

Acidic Oceans Helped Fuel Greatest Extinction 0415

Is Grass-Fed Beef Really Better for You, the Animal and the Planet? 0215 - cow farts (vs sequestration from trampling soil)

Farming Now Worse For Climate Than Deforestation 0215

Climate Change Mitigation’s Best-Kept Secret - Methane 0115

Smoldering Peat Fires Pose Global Threat 0115

Squirrels and Beavers Contributing More Than Thought to Global Warming 1214

Hydropower May Be Huge Source of Methane Emissions 1014

Drowned Tropical Forests Add to Climate Change 0914

Warning over Vulnerability of Soil Carbon to Warming 0914

Greenhouse Gas Fear over Increased Meat Eating 0814

Measuring Cow and Pig Emissions Goes to New Heights 0714

Peatland Fires Biggest Contributor to Carbon Emissions 0514

Are Gassy Cattle a Bigger Problem Than US Government Thought? 1113

Wasted Food is World's 3rd-Biggest Carbon Emitter, after China and US 0913

Global Methane Releases Could Be Wetlands or Wellheads 0913

Tropical Ecosystems Boost Carbon Dioxide as Temperatures Rise 0713

Global Warming at Your Doorstep - Lawns 0513 

Wild Weather Can Send GHGs Spiraling 0413  

Earthworms Increase Soils’ GHG Emissions, Take 2 0313  

Earthworms Increase Soils’ GHG Emissions 0213  

Black Soot Warms 2nd Only to CO2 0113  

Food May Cause Almost 33% of GHG Emissions 1012

Aquatic Dead Zones Contributing to Climate Change 0310 

Wetlands 11K Yr Ago Raised Carbon in Air 0409 - PDF


Rising Carbon Sinks

This “Carbon Removal Marketplace” Will Make Buying Offsets Easier 0618

Cost Plunges for Capturing CO2 from the Air 0618 - take 2 on another summary (below)

This Is How We Might Pull Carbon Out of the Atmosphere 0618 - another summary of many methods

Methods for Climate Restoration 1017

     summary of many methods of CO2 removal, some with costs, + some solar radiation management

US Tax Incentives Expected to Grow CO2 Capture, Sequestration Projects 0318

Keeping the World below 2°C of Warming Needs Tech We Don’t Have 0218 - pessimistic summary from Eur. NAS's

We Can Pull CO2 from Air, but It's No Silver Bullet for Climate Change 0218 - pessimistic summary, take 2

Rising Carbon Sinks - Soils

As stated far above, soils now contain 3-7 times as much carbon as either the atmosphere or above-ground biomass.

Ranching and farming can both move very large amounts of carbon from the air into soils - IF done right.

Mitigation Potential of Soil Carbon Management Overestimated by Neglecting N2O Emissions 0216

Could Soils Help Save the Climate? 0218

Unearthing the Secrets of Soil 1117

This Is Why, When You Talk about Climate Change, You Can’t Ignore Agriculture 0817
    Estimated loss since farming began is 133 billion tonnes of carbon.  Authors think we could regain 8-28 billion tons.

Soil Carbon Scheme a World-1st for South Australian and Victorian Farmers 0817

Next Decade Critical for Climate Targets 0517

Soil Microbes Hold Key to Climate Puzzle 0317 - Complex soil ecosystems harbor carbon sinks and sources.

Compendium of Scientific Findings Supporting Eco-Restoration to Address Global Warming 0417 - PDF 29 pp

about Farming 2nd (mostly, below)

Facing Climate and Water Pressures, Farmers Return to Age-Old Cover Cropping 0518

Cropping, Population Boost Carbon Sinks 0418

Plants Are Great at Storing CO2.  Scientists Aim to Make Them Even Better. 0418

Adding Crushed Volcanic Rock to Farm Soil Could Boost Crops and Slow Global Warming 0418

Farming with Crops and Rocks to Address Global Climate, Food and Soil Security 0218 - add crushed, fast-reacting silicate rocks to soils

No-Till Farmers’ Push for Healthy Soils Ignites a Movement in the Plains 0218

New Healthy Soil Guide Gives Cooks a Better Recipe for Climate Change 1217

Better Soil Could Trap as Much Planet-Warming Carbon as Transport Produces 1117

Switching to Organic Farming Could Cut Greenhouse Gas Emissions 1117

Nature Is One of the Most Under-Appreciated Tools for Reining in Carbon 1017

Why the Way We Manage the Carbon Bio-Flux Matters 1017

Study Shows Organic Farming Traps Carbon in Soil to Combat Climate Change 0917

This Is Why, When You Talk about Climate Change, You Can’t Ignore Agriculture 0817
    Estimated loss since farming began is 133 billion tonnes of carbon.  Authors think we could regain 8-28 billion tons.

Indonesian Farmers Befriend Soil to Protect Harvests from Climate Stress 0617

Solutions Carbon Farming & Cutting Food Waste Don’t Require Trump Buy-in 0617

Surprising News about Deep Soil Carbon 0217 0.9 tons / acre in no-till maize and switchgrass plots, mostly 1-5 feet deep.  Best results with cover crop (stover) remained atop soil and 107 pounds of nitrogen fertilizer per acre.  Agricultural Research Service studies

The Search Is On for Pulling Carbon from the Air 1216 - emphasis on CCS, also spread silicates onto farmlands

White House Releases Climate Change Plan Before Trump Takes Office 1116

Prince Charles Joins Clean Soil Project to Combat Climate Change1016

Ancient Farming Practice Produces More Food, Less Pollution 1016

Looking to the Earth Itself as a Climate Solution 0916

C Sequester - Wolfe 0616 - PDF of PPT

at left, up to $20/T   $50/T   $100/T, good for 2-3 decades
from Paustian et al. 2016.
Nature 532:49.

Iowa Farmers Ripped Out Prairie.  Now Some Hope It Can Save Them. 0816

Michigan Scientists See Urgency for Negative Emissions 0816

How the World’s Most Fertile Soil Can Help Reverse Climate Change 0716 - terra preta, from Amazon & W Africa

How Africans Are Saving Their Own Soil 0616

How Soil Microbes Fight Climate Change 0516

Regenerating Degraded Dirt 0316 - More and more farmers are using no-till and cover crops - to prevent erosion, improve soil’s water retention, and improve nutrient availability (cutting down use of artificial fertilizers).  Sequestering carbon (4/1000 Initiative) is a side benefit.

Cover Crops – a Farm Revolution with Deep Roots in the Past 0216

Massive Tree Farms, Soil Carbon Sequestration May Be Really Bad Climate Ideas 0216
     Darkening soils and forests, from carbon sequestration, especially biochar, increases solar radiation absorbed.
$60 trillion ($30 trillion?) price tag to cut 50 ppm via rock dust / gravel is a lot of money (but less than warming damages?).
Dedicating soils to carbon sequestration may (probably not) make them unavailable for farming.
Problems with farming the oceans to sequester carbon via algae.

Healthy Ground, Healthy Atmosphere - Recarbonizing the Earth’s Soils 0216

Improving Soils Cuts Carbon and Grows More Food 1215

Dirt, a Secret Weapon to Fight Climate Change 1215

Does industrial Agriculture Actually Yield More Food per Acre than Organic? 1015 - yes, but no, and, but, maybe

The Dirt on Soil 1015 - a primer on how parts of soils function

Putting Down the Plow in Oklahoma 1015

Join the 4‰ Initiative Soils for Food Security and Climate 0915 

Farms Hold the Key to Absorbing Carbon and Fighting Climate Change 0715

A 3rd Way to Fight Climate Change 0715

Cover Crops Can Store 4 Tons of Carbon per Acre 0515

Tillage and Cover Cropping Affect Crop Yields and Soil Carbon in the San Joaquin Valley, California - PDF
     
Summary article is below.  Using no-till plus a cover crop sequestered 0.29 more tons of carbon per acre per year (0.66 tonnes / hectare), than using neither.  No differences in fertilizer or pesticide treatment were noted in treatment or control. 

San Joaquin Valley Growers Seek Credit for Sequestering Carbon in Soils 0215 - summary of study above

Best Technology to Save the World Is Trees, Biochar and More Soil Carbon 0215

Can Biochar Fertilize Soil and Help Fight Climate Change? 0914

Old-School Farming Methods Could Save the Planet 0814

Altered Soil May Help Fight Global Warming 0814

How Organic Farming Can Reverse Climate Change 0414

Regenerative Organic Agriculture & Climate Change - Rodale 0414 - PDF, 16 pp
     "There is hope right beneath our feet. There is a technology for massive planetary geo-engineering that is tried and tested, and available for widespread dissemination right now.  It costs little and is adaptable to local contexts the world over.  It can be rolled out tomorrow, providing multiple benefits beyond climate stabilization.  The solution is farming.  Not just business-as-usual industrial farming, but farming like the Earth matters.  Farming like water and soil and land matter.  Farming like clean air matters.  Farming like human health, animal health and ecosystem health matters.  Farming in a way that restores and even improves on soil’s natural ability to hold carbon.  This kind of farming is called regenerative organic agriculture, and it is the short-term solution to climate change we need to implement today.”
     Field trials in the U.S., Egypt, Iran, and Thailand show carbon seqestration of 2.4 to 6.4 tonnes per hectare [0.87 to 2.34 tons per acre] per year.  "Even if modest assumptions about soil’s carbon sequestration potential are made, regenerative agriculture can easily keep annual emissions to within the desirable lower end of the 41-47 GT CO2e range by 2020.”
     Elements of regenerative organic farming include cover crops, residue mulching, composting, crop rotation, and conservation tillage.  Plants so treated sequester carbon in soils at depths to at least 80 cm, for decades to millennia.  Clay helps.  Mycorrhizal fungi are key players in the process, producing glomalin in which carbon is stored.  Yields of organic crop systems exceed those in artificial fertilized systems in times of drought, and they are more resilient in the face of greater weather variability.

Salamander’s Hefty Role in the Forest 0414

Can Farming Provide a Solution to Climate Change? 0813

Australia Coalition's Soil Carbon Plan 'Unviable' 0713

CO2 Reductions from Farming & Forestry - Smith 2013 - PDF, 48 pp

Scientist Finds Chemical Group That Helps Organic Soils Store More Carbon 0613

Fungi Pull Carbon into Northern Forest Soils 0413

Does Biochar Stay Put? 0413

King Corn Mowed Down 2 Million Acres of Grassland in 5 Years Flat 0213

Biochar Cookstoves Boost Health for People and Crops 0113  

Why the Government Should Pay Farmers to Plant Cover Crops 0113  

Carbon Stored in California’s Deserts 1212  

Soil’s Hidden Secrets 0112

CO2 Sequestration Potential in Farm Soils: Abstract - Smith 2011

Siberian Herds Park Takes Carbon from Air 1210  

Carbon Sequester in Soils+ 0609

Storing Carbon in Forest Soils 0308  

Returning Carbon from Air to Soils 0308  

Reading List for Soil Carbon Sequestration 0308 

Moving Carbon from Air to Soil - Details 0308  

More CO2 Sequesters in Soil (Pine Plantations) 0207 - PDF

Organic Farming Sequesters Atmospheric Carbon and Nutrients in Soils - Rodale 2005
     Rodlae's Farming Systems Trial, for 23 years since 1981, has shown that soil, under organic agriculture management, can accumulate about 1,000 pounds of carbon per acre foot of soil each year.  This accumulation is equal to about 3,500 pounds of carbon dioxide per acre, taken from the air and sequestered into soil organic matter.  When multiplied over the 160 million acres of corn and soybeans grown nationally, a potential for 580 billion pounds of excess carbon dioxide per year can be sequestered, when farmers transition to organic grain systems.
     Organic grain production systems increase soil carbon 15 to 28%.  Moreover, soil nitrogen in the organic systems increased 8 to 15%.  Decay rates differ for soil organic matter under different management systems.  In the conventional system, the application of soluble nitrogen fertilizers stimulates more rapid and complete decay of organic matter, sending carbon into the atmosphere instead of retaining it in the soil as the organic systems do.
     Soil microbial activity, specifically the work of mychorrhiza fungi, plays an important role in helping conserve and slow down the decay of organic matter.  Mychorriza fungi are more prevalent in the organic farm systems. These fungi work to conserve organic matter by aggregating organic matter with clay and minerals. In soil aggregates, carbon is more resistant to degradation than in free form and therefore more likely to be conserved.
     
In conventional and organic farming systems, yields of corn and soybean were not different, except in drought years.  Then, organic systems yielded 25 to 75% more than the conventional system.  The organic yield advantage in drought years is specifically related to the ability of higher-carbon organic soils to capture and deliver more water to crop plants.

This is our other most important way to reduce CO2 levels in the air.

Sequestering Carbon in Farm and Forest Soil - Fact Sheet 2004?

Depositing Carbon in the Soil Bank 0201 - USDA

About ranching 2nd -                    .

     The at left picture is from a piece of land in Africa, the Karoo.  Holistic Management grazing is used to the left of the fence, as locals use methods taught by the Savory Institute.  Traditional modern grazing methods are used to the viewer’s right.

    Holistic Management involves grazing cattle (or buffalo, caribou, etc.) for short (~ 1 week) periods on a patch of land, then moving them to another patch.  (Sheep, and especially goats, should not be used, as they crop the grass too short.)  After several months of moving to one patch after another, they return to the original patch, then revisiting each patch in turn.  In the meantime, dung beetles move carbon (in dung) underground, while close-cropped perennial grass adds to its roots and sends up new shoots (as it does after a lawn is mowed).  The cattle hooves help break up the soil, so moisture and seeds can penetrate.  The soil stores more carbon in fungal networks, much of it in the form of glomalin.  The soil carbon results in soils soaking up 75-95% of rainfall, instead of 5-25% of rainfall in soils not treated (to viewer’s right of the fence.)

     This practice removes carbon from the air and stores it soil.  Moreover, the soil becomes a much better sponge for holding water.  A few of the articles (and 1 PPT) below address this practice and its results.

     Details are available here.  Especially watch the two videos.  Watch the short one first.  The second, Allan Savory's TED talk, is also available HERE.http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vpTHi7O66pI&feature=youtu.be

This may be our most important way to reduce CO2 levels in the air.

     Estimates vary for how much carbon our soils can remove from the air, and how fast.  In 2001, US Department of Agriculture staff estimated (see below) that US farming and ranching practices move 20 million tons of carbon a year from air to soils, for $6 per ton of CO2 removed initially.  They also estimated that removal could be increased to 10 times as much, more than 10% of US carbon emissions, largely via changes in tilling practices (no-till, etc.)

Allan Savory Says Says More Cows on the Land Will Reverse Climate Change.  Science Says Otherwise. 0217

    Partly, the article debunks a straw man: increased cattle per acre, but without fast rotation.  Good points - When you take cattle off the land to sell for meat, the land loses the nutrients on the hoof.  Replication has not been done.  Also, fallow (unglazed) land recovers.  Also, cattle did not co-evolve with the driest rangelands.  Savory’s claims about how much CO2 can be removed may well be overblown.

Seaweed in Cow Feed Reduces Methane Emissions Almost Entirely 0518

Can Responsible Grazing Make Beef Climate-Neutral? 0418

Eco-Farming Can Solve Hunger and Climate Crises, Experts Say 0418

Nature Is One of the Most Under-Appreciated Tools for Reining in Carbon 1017

Why the Way We Manage the Carbon Bio-Flux Matters 1017

Grass-Fed Cows Won’t Save the Climate, Report Finds 1017

Focus on Carbon Removal a ‘High-Stakes Gamble’ 0517

Boosting Water Table Can Curb Climate Risks 0217

White House Releases Climate Change Plan Before Trump Takes Office 1116

Earth Soaking Up Less Carbon than We Thought, So It Warms Up Even Faster 0916

Carbon Farming - Hope for a Hot Planet 0416

Dirt - a Surprising Ally in the Battle against Climate Change 0416

Farmland Could Play Key Role in Tackling Climate Change 0416

Improving Soils Cuts Carbon and Grows More Food 0116 - for farming AND ranching

Dung Beetles Are Climate Heroes! 1215

Why Tom Steyer's Latest Climate Change Fight Involves Raising His Own Cattle 1015

How a Cow Can Help the Climate 0515 - one type of “rapid” rotation grazing; carbon sequestration is secondary.

Obama Tackles Agriculture’s Role in Climate Change - Why That’s a Big Deal 0415 - legal & budget; grazing mentioned

Perennial Crops May Save Human Civilization 0415

Is Grass-Fed Beef Really Better for You, the Animal and the Planet? 0215

Scientists Urge Global ‘Wake-up Call' to Deal with Climate Change 0215

How Lowly Termites Save Grasslands for Lions, Elephants, and People 0215

Marin County Rancher Sees Compost as Miracle Cure for Climate Change 1114

Chevrolet Supports Grassland Preservation Program 1114

Microbe Turnover Offsets Soil New Carbon Storage - Sulman 1114 - PDF

Microbes, Roots & Soil Carbon - Wieder 1114 - PDF

Sprinkle of Compost Helps Rangeland Lock up Carbon 1014

Models ‘Underplay Plant CO2 Absorption' 1014

Wide, Brown Land Becomes a Home to Carbon Farming 0814

Carbon Mapping Trial Announced for Pilbara Cattle Station 0314

Soil as Carbon Storehouse- New Weapon in Climate Fight? 0314

As Biochar Uses Expand, Climate Benefits Still Uncertain 0114

Researchers Find Fungus That Can Boost Soil Carbon by up to 70% - 0114

No-Till Farming Is on the Rise.  That’s a Big Deal. 1113

Environmentalists Look to Carbon Markets to Slow Grassland Conversion 1113

The One Area Technology Cannot Save Us & 5 Little Things That Can 0913 - Holistic Managament links: eat grass-fed beef, eggs.  Video links are also in this article.

Holistic Management Can Save Our Soils and Reduce CO2 Levels 0913 - For more detail, see study below.

Restoring Soil Carbon to Slow Climate Change - Savory 0413 - PDF, 20 pp
     Holistic Management practices can move 2.5 tonnes of carbon / hectare / year (= 1 ton / acre / year = 0.25 kg / square meter [sq m]) from the air to soils, maybe more, building soil in the process.  This would increase removal almost by another factor of 10, from USDA's 2001 estimates.  Applied to 4
 billion hectares of degraded grasslands (rangelands) around the world (about 20% of Earth's land), this would move 10 billion tons (GT) of carbon from air to soils.  Changed grazing practices would do it, rather than changed tillage ones.  10 GT / year removal ~ current world carbon emissions.  The atmosphere holds almost 1,000 GT of CO2.  Thus, Holistic Management applied to the max could cut atmospheric CO2 levels by ~ 4 ppm / year, if we reduce our emissions to zero.
     For perspective, the top foot of 1 square meter of soil weighs 350-500 kg.  Typically, 1% to 12% of that is organic carbon.  So, soils (except deserts, see map at top of page) contain 4 to 60 kg of carbon / sq m.  That includes 8-20 in most of the US, Canada, Russia, Siberia, Europe and China.  That's less than permafrost soils, but more than most tropical rainforests.  In all, Holistic Management practices might increase soil carbon by 1-6% / year (& topsoil mass by 0.05% / year), while tillage changes can increase soil carbon 0.1-0.6% / year.

     However, soil microbes respire carbon to the air faster as soil warms.  This counters moving carbon from air to soils.

Soil Organic Carbon Content - Europe & World 2012 - PDF.  eusoils.jrc.ec.europa.eu/esdb_archive/octop/octop_download.html

Carbon % at left.  Tonnes / Hectare below.  World is atop page.


Australian Cattle Giant to Cash in Carbon Credits 0913

Carbon Capture and Renewable Energy Generation by Pyrolysis 0913

Meadowlands Valuable for Pulling CO2 from the Air 0813

More Cows — or Less?  Climate Strategies Point Opposite Ways 0813


Holistic Management: Move Carbon Back to Soil - Jim Laurie 0408 - PPT
     Extract 2 ppm (10 GigaTons of CO
2) / year from the air by proper grazing on some 10 million square miles of rangeland.  That's half a ton of carbon / acre (1.1 tonnes of carbon / hectare) / year.  It would take 1-2 centuries to double the carbon content of treated soils.  In all, goes the plan, extract 80 ppm of CO2 from the air and return it to soils.  Pass 350 ppm on the way down, via 10GT CO2 / year moved to soils, by planned fast rotation grazing on marginal lands.  Decrease ocean dead zones, avoiding Canfield Ocean [very hot, anoxic, sulfur dominated] and a repeat of Permian Extinction.

     Allan Savory, founder of the Holistic Management Institute (which advocates fast (~ 1 week per pasture) rotation grazing on rangelands), says that a 0.5% increase in soil carbon in the world's degraded lands would remove 150 gigatonnes of carbon from the air.  That's 15 years of human emissions at current rates.

Rising Carbon Sinks - Biochar

Biochar, the Once and Future Agricultural Mainstay 1017

Is Biochar a Game-Changer for Sustainable Farms? 0617

Ancient Farming Practice Produces More Food, Less Pollution 1016

Largest Biochar Facility in U.S. Opens at Cornell 0416

Massive Tree Farms, Soil Carbon Sequestration May Be Really Bad Climate Ideas 0216
     Darkening soils and forests, from carbon sequestration, especially biochar, increases solar radiation absorbed.
$60 trillion ($30 trillion?) price tag to cut 50 ppm via rock dust / gravel is a lot of money (but less than warming damages?).
Dedicating soils to carbon sequestration may (probably not) make them unavailable for farming.
Problems with farming the oceans to sequester carbon via algae.

‘Last Ditch’ Climate Change Remedies Olivine & Biochar Remove CO2 from Air 0615

Best Technology to Save the World Is Trees, Biochar and More Soil Carbon 0215

Can Biochar Fertilize Soil and Help Fight Climate Change? 0914

Strategies to Mitigate Climate Change in Agriculture 0414 - PDF, 146 pp

Sustainable Biochar to Mitigate Climate Change - Ammonette 0810 - PDF, 57 pp


Rising Carbon Sinks - Scrub from Air

Pioneers of CO2 Removal See Boon for Renewables 0418

Saving the World with CO2 Removal 0118

Can CO2 Removal Save the World? 1117

World’s 1st “Negative Emission” Plant Will Turn CO2 to Stone 1017

Carbon-Sucking Technology Needed by 2030s, Scientists Warn 1017

Healthy Climate News – 7 Technologies That Could Scale 0317 - 3 are Direct Air Capture.

It’s Time to Start Talking about “Negative” CO2 Emissions 0817

Scientists Dim Sunlight, Suck Up CO2 to Cool Planet 0717

World’s Young Face $535 Trillion Bill for Climate Change 0717

Swiss Firm Climeworks Starts Sucking CO2 from the Air, to Fight Climate Change 0617

Focus on Carbon Removal a ‘High-Stakes Gamble’ 0517

A Cheaper Way to Pull CO2 from the Air, Turn It into Crystals 0117 - Guanidine, lower temp outgassing than amines.

Report from Global Thermostat Tour 1216 - Blow air thru 6-inch cubes.  They use amines in ceramic honeycomb to capture CO2, heat to 80°C to release it for disposal.  Capture 1 ton of CO2 / year.  $70 / ton now, projected fall to $20 / ton.  [Use billions of such cubes.]

Trapping Carbon Works, but High Cost to Limit Its Use to Essential Processes 1116

Could Mutant Plants Save Us from Global Warming? 1116

Climate Change Killing East Africa’s Water Resources, UN Warns 1016

CO2, Climate Change Seen As Waste Disposal Challenge 0916

Artificial Leaf Turns CO2 Emissions Into Fuel 0816

Can Pulling Carbon from Air Make a Difference on Climate? 1215

Nanoscale Carbon Capture Strategy Pays Off 0815

Startups Have Learned How to Remove Carbon from the Air.  Will Anyone Pay Them? 0715

Pragmatic Ways to Capture Carbon from Ambient Air & Smokestacks 0615

Does Air Capture Constitute a Viable Backstop Against a Bad CO2 Trip? - Broecker 1213

Fracked Shale Could Sequester CO2 0913

Carbon Capture and Renewable Energy Generation by Pyrolysis 0913

Carbon Capture from Air Needed to Fight Climate Change 0813

Chemical Plant Would Turn Emissions into Useful Products 0813

Way to Remove CO2 from the Air 0613 

US Lab Removes CO2 from Air at Low Cost 0513  

Canada Lab Hopes to Turn Emissions into Algae 0513  

Suck Carbon Emissions Right Out of the Air 0413  

Pulling CO2 Out of Thin Air 0113  

New Holey Material Soaks Up CO2 0612 

Cheap Material Can Scrub CO2 from Air 0112 

Scrubbing CO2 from Air for Centuries 0710 

CCS No Remedy For Warming 0410

Sequestering Carbon in Rocks - Lackner 2002 - PDF, 42 pp
from Abstract: "Sequestration of waste carbon dioxide will 
require methods that can safely store several trillion tons of carbon dioxide.  Long-term storage of a gaseous substance is fraught with uncertainty and hazards, but carbonate chemistry offers permanent solutions to the disposal problem.  Carbonates can be formed from carbon dioxide and metal oxides in reactions that are thermodynamically favored and exothermic, which result in materials that can be safely and permanently kept out of the active carbon stocks in the environment.  Carbonate sequestration methods require the development of an extractive minerals industry that provides the base ions for neutralizing carbonic acid."
     Among many topics addressed are alkalinity, magnesium carbonates, molten salts, serpentine and olivine.

This is a 3rd key way to reduce CO2 levels in the air.

 Rising Carbon Sinks - Rock (Weathering, etc.)

How Oman’s Rocks Could Help Save the Planet 0418

Can Slag Heaps Help Save the Planet? 0417

Oman's Mountains Holds Peridotite from Mantle to Reverse Climate Change 0417

Pacific Northwest Lab Pumps CO2 Down into Basalt, Turning It to Stone 1116

Scientists Found a Way to Turn Our Carbon Emissions into Rock 1116

Experiment 'Turns Waste CO2 to Stone’ 0616
     CO
2 & H2O injected 1,000 meters deep into volcanic rock.  It turned to carbonate rock over weeks to months.

Why CO2 'Air Capture' Could Be Key to Slowing Global Warming 0516 - artifical trees, also by Klaus Lackner (see above).  In dry conditions, they suck CO2 from the air many times as fast as natural tree leaves.  When wet, they release the CO2, which is sucked out of the chamber for disposal.

Massive Tree Farms, Soil Carbon Sequestration May Be Really Bad Climate Ideas 0216
     Darkening soils and forests, from carbon sequestration, especially biochar, increases solar radiation absorbed.
$60 trillion ($30 trillion?) price tag to cut 50 ppm via rock dust / gravel is a lot of money (but less than warming damages?).
Dedicating soils to carbon sequestration may (probably not) make them unavailable for farming.
Problems with farming the oceans to sequester carbon via algae.

‘Last Ditch’ Climate Change Remedies Olivine & Biochar Remove CO2 from Air 0615

Methane-Munching Microbes Hit Rock Bottom 1014

CO2 Removal Letter from Prof. Olaf Schuiling to the Dutch Government 0114

Understanding How Rocks Weather, Remove CO2 - 0713 - key overveiw article

Flat Weathering 0213

Olivine to Fertilize Oceans Gets Thumbs Down 0113

Throwing Rocks at CO2 - 0112

Peridotite Can Soak Up CO2 1108 

Moving CO2 into Crushed Rock 0308


Rising Carbon Sinks - Ocean Algae

Healthy Climate News – 7 Technologies That Could Scale 0317 - 3 involve ocean capture, 2 with algae.

Massive Tree Farms, Soil Carbon Sequestration May Be Really Bad Climate Ideas 0216
     Darkening soils and forests, from carbon sequestration, especially biochar, increases solar radiation absorbed.
$60 trillion ($30 trillion?) price tag to cut 50 ppm via rock dust / gravel is a lot of money (but less than warming damages?).
Dedicating soils to carbon sequestration may (probably not) make them unavailable for farming.
Problems with farming the oceans to sequester carbon via algae.

Antarctic Icebergs Have Surprise Role in Slowing Warming 0116

Plankton Poo Clue Could Aid Climate Predictions 1015

Scientists Urge Global ‘Wake-up Call' to Deal with Climate Change 0215

Secrets of the Shelf Seas – One of Earth’s Most Important Ecosystems 0115

Models ‘Underplay Plant CO2 Absorption' 1014

Impact of Last Year’s Rouge Ocean Fertilization Experiment Still Unclear 1213

Ocean Iron Study Means Climate Rethink 0713 

Australia Bid to Stop 'Ocean Fertilization' 0513 

Seeding Ocean with Volcanic Iron Did Little to Lower CO2 0313

Olivine to Fertilize Oceans Gets Thumbs Down 0113

Seeding the Ocean to Capture Carbon 0113 

Patented Thermocline Can Upwell & Plankton Sequester CO2 1112

Climate Ocean Tech Fix 0712  

Ocean Algae to Remove CO2 Are Major Toxic 0310 

Hungry Plankton Scuttle Ocean Fertilization 0309  

Scientists Urge Caution in Ocean 1208  

Rising Carbon Sinks - Ocean, Other

Mangroves May Store Way More Carbon than We Thought 0518

Climate Scientists Unlock Secrets of ‘Blue Carbon’ 0118 - wetlands, mangroves, kelp - C density / hectare equal

Healthy Climate News – 7 Technologies That Could Scale 0317 - 1 involves de-acidifying the ocean..

How to Make Coastal Mangrove Habitats Sequester Even More Carbon 0517

Could Elusive Deep-Sea Microbes Help Fight Climate Change? 0916

How Northern European Waters Soak Up CO2 - 0216

Southern Ocean Showing ‘Remarkable' Revival in Carbon Absorption Ability 0915

How Fjords Are Helping Curb Global Warming 0515

Eelgrass Could Save the Planet 1114

Storm Warning - the Winds of Climate Change 0714

Sea Urchin Nickel Soaks Up CO2 0213  

Mangrove Conservation Is Economic 0812  

Coastal Carbon Sinks in Dire Need of Protection 1209  

Rising Carbon Sinks - Misc.

Storing Billions of Tons of Carbon Could Start with CCS for Ethanol 0418

Can California’s Carbon Queen Recycle Pollution? 0318

This Startup Turns CO2 Pollution into Fish Feed 1017

Extreme New Zealand Bugs Could Help Fight Climate Change 0917 - methane-munching bugs in hot springs

Siberian Wildlife Park Aims to Restore Arctic Ecosystem, Slow Climate Change 0417

Scientists Hope Wetland Carbon Storage Experiment Is Everyone's Cup of Tea 0217 Tea rot rate measures sequestration.

Surprising Carbon Sink - Cement Absorbs, Stores CO2 - 1116

We’re Placing Far Too Much Hope in Pulling CO2 from the Air, Scientists Warn 1016

CO2, Climate Change Seen As Waste Disposal Challenge 0916

Pump CO2 into Rocks, Report Urges 0916

Michigan Scientists See Urgency for Negative Emissions 0816

Paris Climate Goals Mean Emissions Need to Drop Below Zero 1215 - repeat of CCS from biomass-fired power plants

Is the 2°C World a Fantasy? 1115 - carbon capture & storage from smokestacks of biomass-fired power plants

Could Diesel Made from Thin Air Help Tackle Climate Change? 0915

Crop Dusters Seed Mangroves by Air, to Save Louisiana Wetlands 0815

Underground Desert Aquifers Could Hold Missing Carbon 0815

Salty Lakes Across Prairies Storing Carbon from the Atmosphere 0215

Wetlands, Swamps ‘Hold Great Potential' to Store Carbon, Fight Climate Change 0215

Can Ants Save the World from Climate Change? 0814

Your Next Roadside Attraction - Carbon Storage 0714

Strategies to Mitigate Climate Change in Agriculture 0414 - PDF, 146 pp

World May Have to Remove Carbon from Air to Meet Climate Goals 0114

U.N. Says Lag in Confronting Climate Woes Will Be Costly 0114

Carbon Storage Studies Grapple with Politics, Geology 0913

Carbon Cycle Gets More Extreme as Climate Changes 0813 

Great Lakes Wetlands May Mitigate Climate Change 0413 


Rising Carbon Sinks - Forests

Sweeping New Estimate of How Much Humans Have Transformed Earth 1217

The Largest Ever Tropical Reforestation Is Planting 73 Million Trees 1017 - Brazil

Nature Is One of the Most Under-Appreciated Tools for Reining in Carbon 1017

Why the Way We Manage the Carbon Bio-Flux Matters 1017

Estonia Cuts Carbon Emissions by Replanting Bogs 0817

Stop Hoping We Can Fix Climate Change by Using Bioenergy Forests, Scientists Warn 0517

Focus on Carbon Removal a ‘High-Stakes Gamble’ 0517

Drylands Greener with Forests than Previously Thought 0517

Global Greening May Soak Up Less CO2 than Projected 0317

White House Releases Climate Change Plan Before Trump Takes Office 1116

Morocco Plants Millions of Trees along Roads to Fight Climate Change 1116

Global ‘Greening' Has Slowed Rise of CO2 in the Atmosphere 1116

African Mangrove & Wetlands Project - Win for the Climate and the People? 1116

India Plants 50 Million Trees in 1 Day, Smashing World Record 0716

Negative Emissions Key to Meeting 2°C Threshold 0716 - bio-energy with carbon capture and storage.  Just cutting emissions under the Paris agreement may not be enough to keep global warming from blasting past 2°C. - NCAR study

Pay Forest Owners to Not Cut Down Trees, to Slow Deforestation Cheaply 0716

Thanks to Climate Change, the Arctic Is Turning Green 0616

Norway Becomes 1st Nation to Ban Deforestation.  How Will That Work? 0616

Warming Could Boost Carbon Storage in Alaska Forests 0616

Forests Re-Grown on Cleared Latin American Lands Key for Climate, Land Rights 0516

Teak Absorbs Max CO2 from Air, Helps Check Global Warming 0416

These Tiny Mangroves Hold Vast Stores of Carbon 0316

China's Forest Conservation Program Shows Proof of Success 0316

Trees Deal with Climate Change Better than Expected 0316

Massive Tree Farms, Soil Carbon Sequestration May Be Really Bad Climate Ideas 0216
     Darkening soils and forests, from carbon sequestration, especially biochar, increases solar radiation absorbed.
$60 trillion ($30 trillion?) price tag to cut 50 ppm via rock dust / gravel is a lot of money (but less than warming damages?).
Dedicating soils to carbon sequestration may (probably not) make them unavailable for farming.
Problems with farming the oceans to sequester carbon via algae.

Rainforest Regrowth Boosts Carbon Capture 0216

Paris Climate Goals Mean Emissions Need to Drop Below Zero 1215

Crop Dusters Seed Mangroves by Air, to Save Louisiana Wetlands 0815

UK to Build World’s 1st Power Plant with Negative Emissions 0815 - wood pellets with CCS

Vietnam Ready to Reduce Greenhouse Gas Emissions 0815

Brazil Beef Industry Pledges Are Cutting Amazon Deforestation 0515

Sri Lanka 1st Nation to Protect All Mangrove Forests 0515

China's 'Green Great Wall' Takes the Prize for Planting the Most Trees 0415

Despite Deforestation, the World Is Turning Greener 0315

Best Technology to Save the World Is Trees, Biochar and More Soil Carbon 0215

Tropical Forests May Inhaling 1/3 of Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions 0115

Could Forests Help States Offset Coal Plant Emissions under EPA Rule?  Probably Not 0115

Going Green - Pakistan to Get $39 Million to Preserve Forests 1214

Restored Forests Breathe Life Into Efforts Against Climate Change 1214

Time Is Right for Global Focus on Forest Land Rights 0914

With Warming, Eastern Forests Inhale More CO2 Than They Exhale 0514

Guatemala’s Ambitious Project to Capture 1.8 Million Tons of Carbon 1113

In Carbon Sequestration, Money Grows on Trees 1213

Carbon Cycle Gets More Extreme as Climate Changes 0813

Study Questions Nature’s Ability to ‘Self-Correct’ Climate: Soil vs Above-Ground Carbon 0813  

Desert 'Carbon Farming' to Curb CO2 0813  

Australian Plants Soaking Up Carbon Pollution 0213

NASA Map Reveals Tropical Forest Carbon Storage 0511

Forest Loss Slows as Asian Nations Plant Trees 0211

How Much Carbon Does a Tropical Tree Sequester? 0710 

Nobel Laureate Says Plant Trees in Africa 0909

Fading Carbon Sinks - Forests

Sweeping New Estimate of How Much Humans Have Transformed Earth 1217

Tropical Deforestation Is Getting Bigger 1117 - esp. in Indonesia & SE Asia, also S America outside Brazil

Why the Way We Manage the Carbon Bio-Flux Matters 1017

Record Amazon Fires Stun Scientists; Sign of Sick, Degraded Forests 1017

Why the Forest Carbon Sink Is Disappearing - Death by 1,000 Cuts 0917

World’s Tropical Forests Are Huge Carbon Emission Source 0917

Deforestation Has Double the Global Warming Effect as Previously Thought 0917

Brazilian Court Blocks Abolition of Vast Amazon Reserve 0817

What Indonesia Is Doing about Its Deadly Haze from Forest and Peatland Fires 0817

A Nebraska-Sized Area of Forest Disappeared in 2015 - 0717

Paying People to Not Cut Down Trees Pays Off, Study Finds 0717

War-Torn South Sudan at Grave Risk on Climate Change 0717

Deforestation Soars in Colombia, after FARC Rebels' Demobilization 0717

Europe's Contribution to Deforestation Set to Rise, despite Pledge to Halt It 0617

Tropical Peat Forests Risk Turning from Carbon ‘Drains' to Emitters 0617

Deforestation in Brazil’s Atlantic Forest Rose Almost 60% in the Last Year 0617

Ending Land Clearing Would Compete with Renewables in Carbon Abatement 0517

The Strange Case of the Liana Vine and Its Role in Global Warming 0417

Amazon Jungle Faces Death Spiral of Drought and Deforestation, Warn Scientists 0317

Amazon Deforestation, Once Tamed, Comes Roaring Back 0217

Deforestation Rises with Incomes in Developing Economies 0117

We Are Destroying Rainforests So Quickly, They May Be Gone in 100 Years 0117

Humans Destroyed 7% of Earth’s Pristine Forest Landscapes Just since 2000 - 0117

Carbon Deposit in Congo Peat Swamp = 20 Years of U.S. CO2 Emissions 0117

Like U.S., Brazil Risks Falling Behind on Climate Change 1216

Amazon Rainforest Destruction Is Speeding Up, When Earth Can Least Afford It 1216

Deforestation Forces Up Brazil’s Carbon Emissions 1116

As Cities Warm, Trees Lose Some of Their Ability to Remove Carbon from the Air 1016

Indonesian Islamic Council Issues Fatwa on Forest Fires 0916

Alarming Number of Fires in the Brazilian Amazon 0916

Costa Rica’s Tapirs Have Surprising Link to Climate Change 0916 - Big frugivores spread seeds of largest tropical trees.

Drought Shut Down Amazon Carbon Sink 0716

California Redwoods Store More Carbon per Acre than Any Other Forests 0716

Dry Amazon Could See Record Fire Season 0616

Forest Fires Can Heat Up the Whole Planet 0616 - Northern (boreal) forest fires put carbon in the air not only from standing trees, but also from peat, while they thaw permafrost, for still more carbon emissions.

Norway Becomes 1st Nation to Ban Deforestation.  How Will That Work? 0616

Spike in Alaska Wildfires Is Worsening Global Warming 0616

Queensland's Mangrove Ecosystem Dying in Secret 0516

These Tiny Mangroves Hold Vast Stores of Carbon 0316

China's Success Regrowing Its Forests Has a Flip Side - Deforestation Elsewhere 0316

Satellite Data Suggests Forest Loss Is Accelerating 0316

Africa’s Forests ‘Threatened by Palm Oil Rush’ 0216

Rainforests May Store Less Carbon as Climate Changes 0216

Global Deforestation Is Decreasing.  Or Is It? 0116 - Contrast Indonesia (bad) with Brazil (mostly good).

Indonesia’s Fires Blamed for Potent Greenhouse Gases 0116

Eliminating Large Fruit-Eating Animals Wrecks Tropical Forest Carbon Storage 1215

After Errors, Congo Basin Forest Effort Restarts with New Scrutiny 1215

Destruction of Brazil's Amazon Forest Jumps 16% in 2015 - 1115

Forests Are Key to Climate 1115

Forest Dieback Could Undermine U.S. Plans to Cut CO2 Emissions 1115

Indonesian Fires Are Pouring Huge Amounts of Carbon into the Atmosphere 1015 - peat +.  CO2 > Germany's, Japan’s.

Alaskan Wildfires Could Make Global Warming Worse 1015.  Soils, permafrost too.

Rapid and Startling Decline of World’s Vast Boreal Forests 1015

Deforestation Halved over Past Decades 0915

Tree Loss Slows, but Covers Area Twice the Size of Portugal in 2014 - 0915

Earth Is on Track to Lose an India-Sized Chunk of Tropical Forests by 2050 - 0815

Massive Wildfires Transform Siberian Paradise (by Lake Baikal) into Disaster Area 0815

Drought Damages Trees' Ability to Store Carbon 0715

Hundreds of Millions of Acres of World's Forest Could be Lost by 2030 - 0415

World's Plants and Soils to Switch from Carbon Sink to Source by 2100 - 0415

Canada and Russia Beat Tropical Countries to Top Global Deforestation List 0415 - Boreal forest fires grew more, bigger.

Subsidies to Deforesting Industries Worth 100 Times the Aid to Prevent It 0315 

Indonesia Defends Deforestation for Palm Oil on Economic Grounds 0315

Brazil’s Deforestation Rates Are on the Rise Again 0315

Amazon Forest Losing Carbon-Storing Capacity 0315

Amazon Droughts Make 'Earth’s Lungs' Emit More CO2 Than They Capture 0315

Tropical Forests May Be Vanishing Even Faster Than Previously Thought 0215 - satellite data vs national reports

Zimbabwe Forests Under Threat 0215

Scientists - No, We Can't Fight Climate Change by Burning Trees 0215

Western Amazon Oil Boom Covers Chile-Sized Bloc of Rainforest 0215

Southern Forests' Ability to Suck Carbon From the Air May Be Slowing 0215

Obama's Climate Plan Could Threaten U.S. Forests 0115

Tropical Forests May Inhaling 1/3 of Fossil Fuel CO2 Emissions 0115

Tropical Deforestation Could Disrupt Rainfall Globally 1214       - take #1 on study

Tropical Deforestation Threatens Global Food Production 1214 - take #2 on study

Amazon Peatlands Are ‘Most Carbon-Dense Ecosystem’ 1214

Tropical Rainforests Not Absorbing as Much Carbon as Expected 1214

Indonesia Cracks Down on Deforestation, in Symbolic U-Turn 1114

Global Meat Demand Plows Up Brazil's 'Underground Forest’ 1114

New Amazon Carbon Maps May Help Limit Deforestation 1114

Drying Amazon Could Be Major Carbon Concern 1014



from US 2013 draft National Climate Assessment











Indonesia Surpasses Brazil in Deforestation Rate 0614

Rainforest Absorption of CO2 Becoming Erratic 0114

Urban Sprawl Threatens Water Quality, Land Conservation Gains 1213

Indonesia’s Forests Are Shrinking, Despite Reforms 1013

Dead Trees in Colder Areas Decay Only Slowly 0313

How Beijing Is Shaping the Amazon 0213

Deforestation Appears to Rise Again in Brazil 0113

Amazon Deforestation at Record Low 1112

Earth's Forest Carbon Sink Downsized 23% 1012

World Forest Area Still Declining 0812

We Can Reforest the Earth 0712  

Trees Absorb Less Carbon in Warming World Than Experts Have Assumed 0512 

Forest Change Risks Climate Goal 1211 

Forest Biofuel Production Will Raise Carbon Emissions 1011 

Drivers of Deforestation: Executive Summary 0611 - PDF

2nd 100-Year Amazon Drought in 5 Years Emitted More CO2 than China 0211  

Land Plant Carbon Uptake Reverses 0810 

Forest Loss Slows 0310 

Soybean Demand Attacks Amazon Rainforest 1209 

Climate Talks Near Deal to Save Forests 1209

Amazon Deforestation Rate Down 45% 1109

Amazon Forest Mostly Doomed 0809  

Amazon Forest Flips to Be a Carbon Source 0409  

Canada Forests Become Carbon Source 0409 

Forests Dying in Western US from Warming 0409 

Climate Change Could Shrink Amazon 85% 0309

US Forests Dying from Climate Change 0109 - WEB

Heat Turns Plants from Sinks to Sources 0908  

Warming to Cut Carbon Sink in Western US 1207  

2002 Drought Cut N America CO2 Sink 50% 1207

N America Drought Cut CO2 Uptake - Peters 1207 - PDF        below, red is drier soil, blue is moister

"Net terrestrial summer flux (Net Ecosystem Production + fires for weeks 20-34) anomaly for the 2 extreme years of our estimate.  2002 has a strong positive summer flux anomaly, due to droughts.  In contrast, 2004 showed high uptake during the summer.  …1° x 1° [resolution].
     Units are grams of carbon per square meter per year."

     Note from graph of US Droughts by Severity on "No Water" page for 2000-13: the drought peaked in 2002 and wound down especially during 2004.

US Forest Fire CO2 Can Exceed Cars' 1207

Western Wildfires Impact on Carbon Balance 1207 - PDF, 33 pp


Fading Carbon Sinks - Oceans

Invisible Scum on Sea Cuts CO2 Exchange with Air 'by Up to 50%’ - 0518

Threatened Blue Carbon Ecosystems Store Carbon 40 x Faster than Forests 0318

'Game Changer' - New Vulnerability to Climate Change in Ocean Food Chain 0318

Global CO2 Emissions Still Accelerating, even as Human Ones Level Off 0516

Phytoplankton Rapidly Disappearing from the Indian Ocean 0216 - 30% decline in 15 years.  satellite chlorophyll surveys

How Fast Will Rising Temperatures Shrink the Earth's CO2 Storage Spots? 0615

Secrets of the Shelf Seas – One of Earth’s Most Important Ecosystems 0115

Storm Warning - the Winds of Climate Change 0714

Warming World Caused Southern Ocean to Exhale 0113  

Rapid Decline in Phytoplankton 0710  

Acid Oceans & Seagrass Meadows 1209 

Acid Oceans Absorbing Less CO2 1109   

Acid Ocean Thinning Marine Shells 0309  

Warming Is Reducing Ocean CO2 Uptake 0109  

Ocean CO2 Sink Failing 1207 

N Atlantic CO2 Sink Down 50% - Schuster 1207 - PDF

World Ocean Plankton & CO2 Fall - Behrenfeld 1207 - PDF

Warm Seas Hurt Plankton 1206


Fading Carbon Sinks - General

How Coastland Development ‘Blue Carbon' Contributes to Climate Change 0615

How Fast Will Rising Temperatures Shrink the Earth's CO2 Storage Spots? 0615

Carbon Sinks Changing #2 - Fung 0313 - PDF

Plants and Soils Could Accelerate Climate Warming 1112

CO2 Levels Accelerate, re Canadell, Take 2 - 1207

More on CO2 Sink Fading, re Canadell, Take 1 - 1207

CO2 Levels Accelerate: Emissions 67%, Sinks 33% - Canadell 1207 - PDF

Carbon Sinks Changing #1 - Fung 1107 - PDF

Fading Carbon Sinks - Biofuel Problems

Biofuels Worse than Oil on GHGs 0208

Biofuels Boost GHGs - Searchinger 0208 - PDF

Biofuels & Carbon Debt - Fargione 0208 - PDF

Fading Carbon Sinks - Soils

There’s a Climate Bomb Under Your Feet 1017

1/3 of Earth's Soil Is Acutely Degraded due to Agriculture 0917

Drylands Will Suffer if World Reaches 2°C 0417

Is Climate Change Putting the World's Micro-Biomes at Risk? 0316

Earth Has Lost 1/3 of Arable Land in Past 40 Years 1215

Why Scientists Are So Worried about Drylands (40% of Earth’s Land) 0915

California Rangeland Lost to Farms & Cities Poses Greenhouse Gas Risk 1214

Warning over Vulnerability of Soil Carbon to Warming 0914

Study Questions Nature’s Ability to ‘Self-Correct’ Climate 0813

Soil Carbon Is Just Blowing in the Wind 0813

Fading Carbon Sources

Negative Emissions Tested at World’s 1st Major BECCS Facility 0616

Rice Growers on the Front Lines of U.S. Carbon Markets 0116

Save More than 4 Million Lives a Year by Harnessing the Sun to Cook 0116

New Rice Could Help Reduce Global Greenhouse Gases 1215

Better Manure Management to Help Cut EU Farm Emissions by 2025 - 1215

Rice Farmers Now Eligible for California Carbon Offset Payments 0615

Replacing Old Gas Pipes Reduces Leaks 0915

Beef’s Impact on Argentina’s Emissions Scrutinized 0815

Diet Change Cuts Methane Emissions in Cow Burps 0815

Gas Utilities Reduce Methane Leaks 0315

Less-Gassy Cows Could Soon Be on Farms 1214

Misc.

Not Long to Wait Till Released CO2 Turns Up Temperature 1214

Flights in the Pacific Fingered as a Big Climate Culprit 0913

Carbon Cycle Gets More Extreme as Climate Changes 0813

Cutting Methane, Soot Soon Can Slow Climate Damage 1112

Natural Sinks Still Sop Up Carbon 0512

Columbus Cut Atmospheric CO2 Levels 1011

Cut Soot, Methane & Low Ozone 0211

Carbon Cycle Science Update Since IPCC AR-4 0710 - WEB

Global GHG Emissions Flat in 2009 - 0710

Atmosphere Ripe for Climate Disaster Now 1108

Approaching Tipping Points 0108            


by Gene Fry 2018