Energy Use

       Below the Overviews are files - articles - about energy use.  Most of them focus on using energy more efficiently.  They are arranged in 7 major groups: Vehicles, Buildings, Lights, Storage (except Vehicles), General, Energy Efficiency - General, and Misc.  "Vehicles" has 2 major sub-groups: (1) Cars & Trucks and (2) Other.  Cars & Trucks has 11 sub-groups, while Other has 4.

      Month and year follow each article's name.  PDF files are so marked, after month and date, some with authors noted.  Within sections, more recent files appear above older files.

     This hour+ video of a 2008 Amory Lovins speech shows how many companies are saving lots of money by using energy more efficiently.  The average cost of decreasing CO2 emissions by using energy more efficiently is only €2 / ton, lost down in the noise.  The US routinely cuts energy use per $ of product by 4% a year, without paying attention.  California and China do better.  Etc.

Overviews

World
Energy Consumption

Winning the Oil Endgame 0509

        Sources: BP, above & below                                 US Department of Energy, above
Renewable energy is mostly hydroelectricity

 Energy Consumption by Nation
(in energy order, million tons of oil equivalent)
     

.             China overtook the US in mid-2010.  China's energy use grew 9.8% per year over 10 years, while US use fell 0.4% per year.  Per year, India's grew 6.1%; Saudi Arabia's 5.7%; Thailand's, Turkey's and Iran's 5.0%; Brazil's 4.0%; Indonesia's 3.9%; and South Korea's and Mexico's 2.9%. 

         .  

     In contrast, per year, the UK's (Britain's) energy use fell 0.8%; Japan's, Germany's, and Italy's 0.7%; the Ukraine's 0.6%; and France's (and America's) 0.4%.  CO2 emissions per nation (shown near the top of the "$ & Tons" page) are the product of energy use and carbon intensity, not shown.

  GDP / Energy  below
      $ / kg oil equivalent - in 2005 $, PPP
(
data from World Bank.  Note 23 year record below, vs. 11 years above.)
      

     Over 1989-2012, energy efficiency (GDP per unit of energy) grew in 15 countries and fell in 3 (Iran [worst of 18], South Korea and Brazil).
     Average efficiency gains were strongest in China (4.2% per year), Britain (2.5%), Germany (2.3%), and India (2.2%).  They were substantial also in the US (1.9%), Canada (1.7%), Russia (1.5%), and Australia (1.4%).

     At Copenhagen in 2009, China pledged to cut CO2 / GDP 40-45% by 2020, India 20-25%. If they continue cutting energy at 1989-2011 rates, China must cut CO2 per energy at least 4%, but over 11 years.  India cuts its energy use almost 22%; it doesn't need to change CO2 per energy. 




.                    Energy Use / Capita: 3 graphs below             (kg of oil equivalent / person), data also from World Bank           


    Energy use per capita grew most strongly in China (4.8%/year) and South Korea (4.5%).  Growth was also strong in Iran (3.9%), Indonesia (2.8%), India (2.5%), and Turkey (2.3%).
     Per capita energy use fell in Germany and the UK (Britain), both 0.8% a year.  It fell 0.7% a year in Russia, 0.6% a year in the US, and 0.4% a year in Canada.
     It rose slightly in Italy, France, South Africa, and Japan, but fell since 2005.  It rose significantly, but not a lot, in Mexico and Australia, while it rose more in Brazil.




Our Energy Grid Is Incredibly Vulnerable – to Climate Change 0816

     Below is a "curve" with amounts and prices of various technologies to cut carbon emissions.  Abatement costs below zero are mostly energy efficiency improvements: investments that pay for themselves even with a carbon price of zero.


US

     Worldwide % and mix of uses and emissions is similar (see below).  CO2 comes most of all from coal power and transport.  Brazil and Indonesia lead in deforestation.  Farming CO2 comes from all over.

Energy Consumption

     US energy use grew 3.7% a year over 1949-73, till the Arab oil embargo.  After a 9-year dip, over 1983-2004 it grew 1.5% a year.  Since 2007, on average, it shrank by 1.3% a year.
     Oil's share shrank, steeply since 40.3% in 2005 and 39.3% in 2007.  Nuclear's peaked at 8.8% in 2009.  Coal's peaked at 22.9% in 2000.  Gas bottomed out at 22.3% in 1987 and 2006.
     The renewable share fell rapidly from 9.3% in 1949 to 6.9% in 1955, and slowly to 5.4% in a dry 1977.  It rebounded slowly to 6.5% in 2007, then rose steeply to 9.3% in 2011 and 2012.  Biomass (wood, later corn ethanol), then wind, were the major drivers.  Hydro varied from wet years to dry.  Solar's share is no longer so tiny; it rose 6-fold from 2007 to 2013, to 0.5%.

     Below, energy use for electricity generation has grown the fastest, 2.1% a year.  For primary energy use, transport use grew 1.2% a year, while commerce and industry use both shrank 0.3% a year and home use shrank 0.8% a year.  For homes and commercial buildings, primary energy use is mostly for space heating.

     Above, total energy use, including electricity use in the 4 other sectors, grew 1.8% a year for commerce, 1.2% for transport, 0.9% for homes, and 0.1% for industry.   Commercial buildings electrified the most, followed by homes.  Industry was more electrified than transport in 1949 and continued electrification modestly.

US electricity production is from the US Department of Energy.  Per capita use is from the World Bank..


    US electricity production rose ever more slowly over 25 years, averaging 2.5% a year growth from 1982 to a peak in 2007.  US electricity production shrank 0.5% a year since then.  Per capita use peaked in 2000 and 2005.


     Commercial electric use rose faster than residential use until 2000.  Both grew much faster than industrial electric use, which peaked in 2000.  Transport's share of electricity use plummeted from 2.55% in 1949 to 0.45% in 1960.  It fell further to 0.14% in 1979, then slowly rebounded to "peak" at 0.22% in 2007.


     Daily US HOME electric use in 2012 averaged 11.5 kWh per capita.

    Per capita use in 17 of the 30 most populous states was above average.  #s 1-6, 9-11 & 14-15 voted Republican for President, but not #s 7-8 FL & NC.  The lowest 13 users all voted Democrat.

     Among all 50, North Dakota & Louisiana used the most, Alabama & Tennessee next, then AR, SC, OK, MS, WV & KY.  All Republican.

      The 10 lowest users were Connecticut, Hawaii, New York & California, followed by MA, NJ, PA, RI, OH & IL.

          Residential kWh per state comes from US DOE, population from the 2010 Census.


Vehicles
Winning the Oil Endgame 0509 - by Amory Lovins

Self-Driving Cars May End Gasoline Era 0416

     The graph at left uses Wikipedia sources for oil use by nation, population, and vehicles per capita.  Variations from nation to nation are sensitive to ratios of cars to heavy trucks (& buses) and ratios of vehicle use to other uses - heating, power plants, pipelines, irrigation pumps, cooking, portable generators, etc.
     Low use per vehicle in Europe is from efficient cars.  Freight there goes mostly by rail, not truck.  Brazil's low use is from ethanol. High use in India, Indonesia & Pakistan is from more trucks & buses than cars, plus much use for irrigation & cooking.



  ...  At right, the small 6% progress in fleet MPG since 1992 is driven by a change in the mix of vehicles, especially the increase in “Pickups, Vans, SUVs” relative to “Cars”, despite a 7% MPG increse for heavy trucks, a 14% increase for cars, and a 1% increase for Pickups+.


Cutting US Oil Use 80% by 2050 - Transportation Futures 0413 - PDF, 21 pp

  

 at left and above: US Dep’t of Transport. 2011.
At left, Cars assumes 21 mpg.


        

      Vehicles - Cars & Trucks - Electric Cars

above is from Bloomberg New Energy Finance, New Energy Outlook in June 2016

     In 2017-18, battery-powered car sales are about 1% of US car sales.

1 in 5 American Car Buyers Say They'll Buy an Electric Car Next 0518

New Jersey to Join Clean Car Initiative, as EPA Eases Fuel-Economy Standards 0418

Can This New Electric Rickshaw Stop Cars From Taking Over Asian Cities? 0418

Electrification (to Reduce Carbon Emissions) Could Be a Lifeline for Utilities 0318

VW Shocks Tesla with $25 Billion Battery Supply Plan 0318

Chicago Could See 80,000 Electric Cars by 2030 - 0218

Aussie Chief Scientist Alan Finkel Hits Back at Electric Car Doubters 0218

Electric Cars Could Destroy the Electric Grid – or Fix It Forever 0218

California Governor Pushes for 5 Million Zero-Emission Cars 0118

Switch to Electric Cars Is Key to Fixing Critically Insufficient' US Climate Policies 0118

Car ‘Batteries on Wheels' Could Help Solve Renewable Energy's Storage Issue 0118

Ford to Invest $11 Billion, for 40 Hybrid and Fully Electric Vehicles by 2022 - 0118

Chicago Seeks to Expand Its Electric Bus Fleet 0118

Over Half of New Car Sales Now Electric or Hybrid in Norway 0118

California Bill Seeks Ban on Fossil-Fueled Vehicles by 2040 - 0118

Thor Electric Truck Will Probably Beat Tesla’s to Market 1217

These Electric Buses Could Start Cleaning Up National Park Travel 1217

Will Electric Vehicles Doom Your Neighborhood Auto Mechanic? 1217

Where It Pays to Drive Electric 1117

1 in 6 New Cars in the World Will Be Electric by 2025 - 1117

Electric Cars and Energy Storage Seen Arriving Early Next Decade 1117

Tesla Reveals Battery-Powered Semi-Truck 1117

Europe Calls for Cutting Car Emissions by 1/3.  Not Enough, Critics Say. 1117

SoCal Edison Looks to Decarbonize Grid, Transportation in New Climate Plan 1117

Tesla Reportedly Reaches Agreement to Build Car Factory in Shanghai 1017

China's Chongqing Changan to Stop Selling Combustion-Engine Cars from 2025 - 1017

These City Bus Routes Are Going All-Electric ― and Saving Money 1017

World Petrol Demand ‘Likely to Peak by 2030, as Electric Car Sales Rise’ 1017

'This Is the Future' - Solar-Powered Family Car Hailed by Experts 1017

Paris Plans to Banish All but Electric Cars by 2030 - 1017

EU Plans Carbon Credits, Not Quotas, for Electric Vehicles 1017

10,000 Electric Cars Highlight Steep Path to India's Ambitions 1017

Are Electric Vehicles Pushing Oil Demand Over a Cliff? 1017

China Hastens the World Toward an Electric-Car Future 1017

Electric Car Owners ‘Can Drive for Free by Letting Energy Firms Use Battery’ 1017

The Electric Road to Zero Emissions Hits a Gas Pocket 0917

General Motors Is Going All Electric 1017

10 Giant Companies Commit to Electric Vehicles - Message for Auto Industry 0917

India to Embark on World’s Most Ambitious Electric-Car Transformation 0917

China Studying When to Ban Sales of Traditional Fuel Cars 0917

VW to Build Electric Versions of All 300 Models by 2030 - 0917

Scotland Sets 2032 Ban on New Diesel and Petrol Cars, Funds Carbon Capture 0917

After Electric Cars, What More Will It Take for Batteries to Change the Face of Energy? 0817

Tesla Drivers Claim Model S Distance Record of 670 Miles on a Charge 0817

This Is How Big Oil Will Die 0517

Toyota and Mazda Join Forces on Electric Vehicles.  Is It the End for Gas Cars? 0817

Shell CEO Says His Next Car Will Be Electric 0717

Driving Tesla’s Model 3 Changes Everything 0717

Britain Bans Gasoline and Diesel Cars, Starting in 2040 - 0717

Volkswagen to Assemble Electric Cars in Rwanda 0717

Electric Vehicles Will Be More than 50% of New Car Sales by 2040 – BNEF 0717

Black Cab Turns Green, as All-New Electric London Taxi Launches 0717

Tesla Rolls Out Its 1st Model 3, and It’s Elon’s 0717

France to Ban Sales of Petrol and Diesel Cars by 2040 - 0717

Volvo to Go All Electric with New Models, from 2019 - 0717

Tesla’s 1st Mass-Market Car, the Model 3, Hits Production This Week 0717

Electric Cars Accelerate Past 2 Million Mark Globally 0617

India Aims to End the Sale of Petrol and Diesel Cars by 2030 - 0617

The Country Adopting Electric Vehicles Faster Than Anywhere Else 0517

Electric Cars Becoming Popular as Grid Gets Greener 0517

India Launches Massive Push for Clean Power, Lighting, and Cars 0517

No Matter What Trump Does, Big Cities Pressing for Cleaner Cars 0517

China and India’s Plans for Electric Cars Threaten to Cut Gasoline Demand 0517

Elon Musk Says Tesla Will Unveil an Electric Semi Truck In September 0417

Batteries Could Be Tesla’s Secret Weapon 0417

Cities Shop for $10 Billion of Electric Cars to Defy Trump 0317

Rollout Of Chevy Bolt May Mark Turning Point For Electric Car Market 0217

UK Electric Vehicle Boom Drives New Car Sales to 12-Year High 0217

Electric Cars and Cheap Solar ‘Could Halt Fossil Fuel Growth by 2020’ - 0217

London’s Black Cab Maker Targets Europe Capitals for New Hybrid-Electric Taxi 0117

Electric Cars Will Not Stem Global Demand for Oil, Says BP 0117 - even with 100 million EVs by 2035

China, Europe Drive Shift to Electric Cars, as U.S. Lags 0117

Electric Vehicle Revolution Could Speed by U.S. Workers under Trump 0117

This Electric Bus Recharges at Bus Stops in Just a Few Minutes 0117

Cities Unite to Seek 'Record Breaking' Electric Fleet 0117

Electric Vehicles Threaten to Overtake Biofuels 0117

Ford Is Revving Up Its Plans for Electric and Driverless Vehicles 0117

2017 Will Be the Year Tesla Reigns Supreme – or Finally Flops 1216

China Unveils Green Vehicle Subsidy Caps, Increases Technical Requirements 1216

Electric Car Sales Pass Half a Million in US 1216

Driverless Electric Cars Could ‘Cut Air Pollution to Almost Zero and Make Car Parks Obsolete within 10 Years' 1216

New Energy Outlook, Exec Sum - BNEF 1016 - PDF

Toyota to Start Mass Production of Electric Cars, as Restrictions Loom 1116

Tesla Shock Means Global Gasoline Demand Has All But Peaked 1116

In Shift Away from Diesel, Volkswagen Embraces Electric 1116

How Will Electric Cars Fare under the Next President? 1116

California Utility Regulators Are Turning Electric Vehicles into Grid Resources 1116

California's Electric-Car Rebates Jump for Lower-Income Buyers, Vanish for High Earners 1016

Electric Cars Set to Pass 2 Million Landmark Globally by End of 2016 - 1016

Germany Wants to Ban Fossil-Fuel-Powered Cars 1016

Americans Bought More Electric Vehicles Last Month than Ever Before 1016

It’s Time to Go Back to School – Is It Also Time to Go Electric? 0916

This New Electric Bus Can Drive 350 Miles on 1 Charge 0916

In China's Electric Car Boom, Global Automakers Select Different Gear 0916

Range Anxiety (Overblown ?) Scares People Away from Electric Cars 0816

The Netherlands Could Be the 1st Country to Ban Gas, Diesel Vehicles 0816

How Kansas City Became the EV Mecca of the Midwest 0816

Mercedes Is about to Unveil an Entire Fleet of Electric Vehicles 0816

Mercedes Debuts World's First Fully Electric Big Rig 0716

Elon Musk Reveals Part 2 of his 'Master Plan' for Tesla 0716

Elon Musk’s Tesla ‘Master Plan’ Involves Trucks, Buses and a Compact SUV 0716

These Fuel Economy Regulations Mean You May Soon Buy an Electric Car 0716

How Utilities Can Gain from the Coming Boom in Electric Vehicles 0616

After Emissions Cheating Scandal, Volkswagen Steers toward Electric Vehicles 0616

Why the Tesla Boom Could Be Very Good News for the Electric Grid 0616

The World Nears Peak Fossil Fuels for Electricity 0616

Daimler to Unveil Long-Distance Electric Car in October 0616Daimler to Unveil Long-Distance Electric Car in October 0616

Norway to Ban All Sales of Petrol Powered Cars by 2025 - 0616

Wireless Charging is the Key to Unlocking an Electric Vehicle Revolution 0516
     Buses are the first-est market, but delivery trucks and cars (especially self-driving ones) are not far behind.  Plug-in hybrids are usually not plugged in, but wireless charging could change that.

Can Ford Compete in the Long-Range Electric Vehicle Market? 0516

Self-Driving Cars May End Gasoline Era 0416

Taking on Tesla - China's Jia Yueting Aims to Out-Muscle Musk 0416

Netherlands Looks to Ban All Non-Electric Cars by 2025 - 0416

Tesla Says Model 3 Orders Top $10 Billion in 1st 36 Hours 0416

Tesla Reveals Its $35,000 Car for the Masses 0416

India Aims to Become 100% Electric Vehicle Nation by 2030 - 0316

Tesla’s Model 3 Launches.  Is Elon Musk Correct about the Electric-Car Future? 0316

Seattle Mayor Wants to Cut Vehicle Emissions, Add Electric Cars 0316

Electric Cars ‘Will Be Cheaper than Conventional Vehicles by 2022' - 0216

EPA Asks Volkswagen to Make Electric Cars in U.S. 0216

That's the Brakes - Using Stored Energy from Public Transit for Grid Services 0216

Chinese Market Electrifying for ‘Green’ Vehicles 0216

Indian Government Helps Carmakers Go Green & Cheap, to Fight Smog Crisis 0116

In Coal-Powered China, Electric Car Surge Fuels Fear of Worsening Smog 0116

U.S. May Not Hit 1 Million Electric Vehicles until 2020 - 0116

UK Electric Car Market Enjoys Record Surge in Demand 0116

Carmakers Forge Ahead with Electric Vehicles 0116

China Is the World's Largest Car Market.  Will It Also Be the Greenest? 1215

NRG Is Testing Vehicle-to-Grid Integration 1215

Hybrid Technology to Fill Autos Gap as Diesel Damaged by VW Scandal 1015

Tesla Gets Boost from Korean Battery Maker LG Chem 1015

VW Plans to Recover from Its Scandal by Going Electric 1015

U.K. City Is Designing a Future of Fewer Cars - by Focusing on Its Roads 1015

Climate Benefits from Electric Car Equals $425, Study Says 0915
   Worse than gasoline in coal power states, will improve as electricity goes renewable.
  Cabin heat problem in cold states.

How to Sell Electric Vehicles?  2- and 3-Wheelers Boom across Asia 0815

Audi's New Electric Car, with 300-Mile Range, to Rival Tesla Model X  0815

Tesla Motors Trims Delivery Outlook, Sending Stock Down 0815

Electric Cars Will Give a Hefty Boost to Australia’s Economy, Aided by Policies 0715

'Robocabs' Can Drive Down Pollution 0715

On the Road to Zero Emissions, Bhutan Hits a Few Electric Car Bumps 0615

Tesla Co-Founder Sees Future in Electric Commercial Truck 0615

'Made in Singapore' Electric Taxi Charges Fast, Goes the Distance 0515

Meet the Mirai - Why Toyota Wants to Make Your Next Car Run on Hydrogen 0515

Tesla Struggling to Electrify Car Market in China 0415

Shenzhen, China Readies Almost $800 Million for Electric Car Incentives 0315

Europe’s Electro-Mobile Future – Norway as a Model? 0315

Surprising Benefit of Electric Cars - Cooler Cities 0315

UK Ministers' Cars to Be Swapped for Electric Versions in Green Drive 0315

Germany Tries Electric Car-Sharing Schemes to Boost Sales, Curb Emissions  0315

Washington State Lawmakers Push Electric Car Ownership 0215

EU Policy-Makers Seek to Make Electric Transport a 'Priority’ 0215

Will the Chevrolet Bolt EV Push Electric Vehicles to the Mainstream? 0115

How Georgia Became the Biggest Electric Vehicle Market in the US 0115

Chevy Bolt Electric Car Could Be 'the 1st Mass-Market EV Success’ 0115

Tesla Motors Model S Gets Some Competition 1214

Raising The Roof - Tesla Opens The Era Of The Upgradeable Car 1214

How Solar Power and Electric Cars Could Make Suburban Living Awesome Again 1214

California Extends Support for Plug-in Cars 1214

Electric Cars a Mixed Bag For Health, Climate 1214

The One Variable That Will Determine Tesla's Future 1214

The ZEV’s Invisible Tailpipe 1114

China's Rush to Green Vehicles Fuels Bubble Concerns 1114

Solar Electric Cars - When Your Gas Station is the Sun 1014

Tesla Sees Electric Car Growth as Helping Competitors 1014

West Coast Leads Surge in Electric Cars 0914

Tesla Selects Nevada for Battery Giga-Factory 0914

Tesla Motors Strikes Deal to Build 400 Charging Stations in China 0914

Iran to Produce 400,000 Electric Motorcycles to Help Reduce Air Pollution 0814

Tesla and Panasonic Agree to Build Factory in U.S. 0714

China Wants 30% of Government Cars to Be Electric 0714

Tesla Edges Out Toyota as California’s Top Auto Employer 0514

Tesla to Build Cars in China 0414

Tesla Unveils $5 Billion Plan for 'Gigafactory' to Make Lithium Batteries 0214

US EV Sales Double in 2013 - 0114

8 States Vow 3.3 Million Zero-Emission Vehicles by 2025 1013

Connecticut Plugs into Multi-State Push for More Electric Cars 1013

Tesla Stock Drops After Model S Catches Fire 1013

Father of the Prius Sees Long Road to a Fully Electric Future 0913

Tesla Outsells Porsche, Buick, Lincoln, Others in California 0813

Solar Suburbia to Power Modern Cities? 0813

South Korean Road Wirelessly Recharges Buses 0813 

Suddenly, There Aren’t Enough Electric Cars to Keep Up with Demand 0613

French Electric Car Share Program Sets Sights on Indy 0613 

Electric Cars Are Getting as Cheap as Gasoline Rivals 0613 

To Spark Buyers for Electric Cars, Drop the Price to Nearly $0 0513 

Profit in Selling Power from Electric Cars to the Grid 0413

Flipping The Switch - Prioritizing Electric Cars 0213 

Dutch Try Electric Cars 0213 

Can Electric Cars Be Used as Backup Generators 0113 

Chevy Volt Sales Triple, in Year of Contrasts for Electric Cars 0113

Growing Up Year for Plug-Ins 1212

Philippines Gives Green Light to Electric Tricycles 1212

Ford Focus Electric to Go 100 MPG* 1211

Nissan Leaf Rolling Out to 50 States by March 1211

Nissan Leaf to Help Power Homes 0811

Ford Electric Focus Will Go Farther 0910

Fewer Wh / mile is more efficient. 300 Wh / mile ~ 112 mpg.
360 Wh / mile ~ 94 mpg of gasoline.
650 Wh / mile ~ 52 mpg.

Electric Car to Go 400 Kilometers on a Charge 1009

Electric Car Goes 250 Miles per Charge 0409

Israel’s Electric Car 0108


Vehicles - Cars & Trucks - Gas-Electric Hybrids

UK Sales of Hybrid Cars Soar, as Diesels Plunge by Nearly 1/4 - 0618

Delphi Automotive Unveils 48-Volt Mild Hybrid Technology 0416

Indian Government Helps Carmakers Go Green & Cheap, to Fight Smog Crisis 0116

Hybrid Technology to Fill Autos Gap as Diesel Damaged by VW Scandal 1015

GM Unwraps Upgrade of Plug-In Hybrid Volt 0115

Ford Working on Prius Rival to Meet Federal Fuel Standards 0814

Ford to Debut Solar Car 0913

Toyota Parks Corolla Hybrid in Key Market Space 0813

GM Cuts Plug-in Volt's Price by $5,000 0813

Toyota Hybrid Sales Pass 5 Million 0413

Hybrid Vehicle Sales Speed Up 0313

Automakers Unwrap Hybrids to Meet Tough Fuel Standard 0313

Hybrids & Diesels to Lose London Congestion Charge Exemption 0113

Growing Up Year for Plug-Ins 1212

Chevy Volt to Get 230 mpg 0809

Plug-in Hybrid News 1008

Ford Delivers Plug-in Hybrid 1207

Plug-in Hybrids Slash Emissions 0707

Hybrid Cars Roundup 0507


Vehicles - Cars & Trucks - MPG Changes

         Translation:
9.5 L/100 km ~ 24 mpg
8.7
 L/100 km ~ 26 mpg
8.1 L/100 km ~ 28 mpg
6.9 L/100 km ~ 33 mpg
6.7 L/100 km ~ 34 mpg
6.1 L/100 km ~ 37 mpg
5.0 L/100 km ~ 45 mpg


History of US CAFE Standards and Weighted Sticker New Vehicle MPG

Amory Lovins Tackles Climate Change with Hyper-Efficient Car 0113    It has no engine, axles, transmission, driveshaft, or starter.  At each wheel, a fuel cell drives a motor.  Batteries and software are important too.

     Data in graph at left, for existing vehicles, is from Department of Energy.  Graph above, for new vehicles, is from Wikipedia.

Automakers Talk Up an Electric Future, but Push Weaker Fuel Standards 0518

It’s Not Just Hybrids - Pickup Trucks and Sedans Have Gotten More Efficient, Too 0518

Major Automakers Urge Trump Not to Freeze Fuel Economy Targets 0518

Trump Plans to Fight California Car Rules With Twice-Failed Strategy 0518

17 States Sue EPA Over Auto Emissions Standards Rollback 0518

Why EPA’s Effort to Weaken Fuel Efficiency Standards Could be Trump’s Most Climate-Damaging Move Yet 0418

Diesel Collapse Gives Automakers Carbon Headache 0318

The World Embracing SUVs Is Bad News for the Climate 0318

Cars and Trucks Are America’s Biggest CO2 Emitters for the 2nd Year in a Row 0118

In Run on Less Roadshow, Semi-Trucks Topped 10 MPG in Real-World Driving 0917

How President Trump Will Change What You Drive 0417

New Cars in Australia Are Much Less Fuel Efficient than Manufacturers Claim 0317

Automakers Sue to Overturn Obama EPA's Emission Rules 0317

How Federal Fuel-Efficiency Rules Help Fight Climate Change 0317

Vehicle Standards Are Energy Efficiency at Its Best – Too Valuable to Roll Back 0317

Automakers Urge New EPA Chief to Withdraw Obama Car Fuel-Efficiency Rules 0217

Obama Administration Will Keep Tough Fuel Economy Standards in Place 1116

Fuel Economy - Just 2 cars Deliver Advertised Mileage, Tests Show 0916

New Fuel-Efficiency Standards for Heavy-Duty Trucks, Vans, Buses 0816

Superglue Diet - How to Make a Lighter, Fuel-Sipping Car 0816

These Fuel Economy Regulations Mean You May Soon Buy an Electric Car 0716

Could Obama’s Signature Fuel Efficiency Standards Stall? 0716

Power Plants Are No longer Biggest US Climate Problem.  Transportation Is. 0616

Irish Motorists Could Cut Carbon Emissions by 70% in 10 Years, Says Scientist 0316

Chasm between Car CO2 Test Results and Real World 0915

Surprising Study Suggests Flying May Be Greener than Driving 0415

Toyota to Start Tokyo Trial of Electric 3-Wheeler 0415

With Gasoline $2.67 a Gallon, America Celebrates by Buying Gas Guzzlers 1214

Eco Cars Fail 'Real World' Fuel Tests Against Larger Models 1014

EPA Says New Vehicle Mileage Hits Record 24.1 MPG 1014

More Cars Getting Stop-Start Despite Driver Resistance 1014

US Cars Are More Fuel-Efficient than Ever - 5 Reasons Why 0914

Auto Industry Ahead of Schedule in Reducing Emissions 0814

2012 Autos Beat Environmental Standards, EPA Reports 0414

New US Fuel Standards - Costlier Cars, But Less Expensive to Run 1013

US Vehicle Fuel Efficiency Reaches a High, Nearing Goal for 2016 - 0913

U.S. to Bring Gas Mileage Rules to Era of Hybrids 0813

US Cars Are More Efficient Than Ever 0313

Better Fuel Economy Matters to More US Consumers 0413

     At left (2012 data), PU is pick-up truck, D diesel.  The Toyota Prius (4th from bottom) goes off-scale, at 50 miles per gallon.  The Ford F-150 was the top seller in 2013, the Chevy Malibu #20.
     Combined city-highway MPG is EPA's, using the smallest engine available & automatic transmission.  For models with diesel and gasoline versions, the 2 MPGs are averaged.





     At left, E indicates Electric, H is Hybrid, Plug is Plug-in hybrid, D is Diesel.

     Plug and HE use the average of electric and gasoline MPGs: 1:2 for Toyota and 1:1 for Chevy.
     Data are EPA combined MPG numbers.








Obama Unveils 54.5 MPG 2025 Standard 0811  - Summary below is from Wikipedia.

US Tells Automakers 56.2 MPG by 2025 0611

New US MPG Standards Issued 0410

258 mpg VW 1-person Car for China 0809

DOT-EPA Stds Raise MPG to 39.5 0709

Tata Motors Gets 54 mpg for $2.5K 0108

Tata Nano 54 mpg 4-door $2K 0108

US to Up MPG, Ethanol, kWh Efficiency 1207

Better MPG Boosts US Auto Profits 0906

Detroit Fuel Economy Strategies: Summary 0906 - PDF

Detroit Fuel Economy Strategies - McManus 0906 - PDF, 59 pp


Vehicles - Cars & Trucks - Batteries & Storage

Solar Electric Cars - When Your Gas Station is the Sun 1014

Ultra-Capacitors Complement Batteries 0112

Chrysler's Battery-Less Hybrids 0111

Car Lithium Battery Price War 0810

GM Opens Huge Battery Test Lab 0609

Electric Car Battery Stations for Denmark #2 0109

Electric Car Battery Stations for Denmark #1 0109 

Carmakers to Use Lithium-Ion Batteries 0408

Compressed Air Car 0902

Vehicles - Cars & Trucks - Charging & Vehicle to Grid

     For long-distance travel by battery-powered vehicle, range over 200 miles is very useful.  Fast charging, at 40 kW (19 in a pinch), is required to approximate what gasoline-powered vehicles can achieve.  At 4 to 4.5 miles / kWh (higher at lower vehicle speeds and lower in cold outdoor temperatures (assuming heated car interior)), 40 kW charging for an hour yields 160 to 180 miles of range, up to 3 hours of driving.  With stops for food and rest required anyway, a long trip by long-range electric vehicle requires 5-20% more hours than the same trip by gasoline-powered vehicle.
     4 to 4.5 miles / kWh is the equivlent of 135 to 153 miles / gallon.
     With a 60 kWh battery, the corresponding rage is 240 to 270 miles.  But the range in winter can be under 200 miles.  The range at 70 mph will be 10-15% less than at 60 mph.
     The EPA rates the Chevy Bolt at 119 
mpge, with 238 mile range.  I do better - more local driving and only 65-67 mph on expressways.  4.4 mi / kWh (150 mpge) is my average for 1st 4,000 miles, but only 3.3 (112 mpge) in winter, as battery must heat passengers too.  My longest trip was from central Massachusetts to Washington DC.  It required 3 juice-ups at fast-charging stations between home and final destination.  2 meals on the road each way, plus digesting e-mails and doing computer work while my vehicle charged.
     My operating cost off my home charger ($1,150 installed, for 7 kW) is 5¢/mile (22¢/kWh), plus maintenance cost of 1.5¢/mile (mostly tires).

     As of November 2017, without access to the Tesla Supercharger network (which requires Tesla-specific hardware), trips from Augusta, Maine to Miami and from Seattle is San Diego are feasible.  But trips from Atlantic to Pacific is not.
     However, a trip by Tesla from Atlantic to Pacific (or vice versa) is available along I-10, I-40, I-70, I-80, or I-90.

Tesla EV SuperCharger Stations      November 2017


ChargePoint EV Charging Stations      December 2013 (few of these were fast-charging)

 

      Other companies' networks also exist, in the US and abroad.

Electrified Roads - Swedish Project Could Slash Cost of Electric Vehicles 0518

Finding Minnesota’s Synergy between Solar and Electric Vehicles 0418

China Is Making Electric Buses Cheap 0418

Pittsburgh Powers Up Small Electric Vehicle Fleet with Solar Charging Stations 0418

World's 1st Electrified Road for Charging Vehicles Opens in Sweden 0418

New Jersey Plugs Away at Climate Change with Electric Vehicles, Chargers 0318

Chicago Could See 80,000 Electric Cars by 2030 - 0218

Colorado Governor Releases Its Plan for 1 Million Electric Vehicles by 2030 - 0118

North Carolina Hopes to Lure ‘EV Tourists’ with Rural Charging Stations 0118

Atlanta Passes Infrastructure Ordinance to Support EV Charging 1117

For Oil Giant Shell, Service Station Means Electric Cars Too 1117

Gas Stations Get Ready for the Electric Future 1117

EnerNOC Moves into EV Charging Space with eMotorWerks Acquisition 1017 - vehicle to grid for aggregated grid storage

V2G - Electric Vehicle Batteries May Get Much More Valuable Soon 0817

Australia to Build Superhighway for Electric Vehicles beside Great Barrier Reef 0717

Charging Electric Cars the Smart Way Will Take Pressure Off the Grid 0317

Automakers Fund European Electric Car Charging Sites, to Boost Demand 1116

California Utility Regulators Are Turning Electric Vehicles into Grid Resources 1116

U.S., 35 States to Boost Electric Vehicle Charging Network 1116

Plans for an Electric Car Charging Point in Every New Home in Europe 1016

How Car Charging Is Going the Way of Airbnb 0816

Charging Pads Let Electric Car Owners Cut the Cord 0816

Michigan Utility Plans Statewide Electric Vehicle Charging Network 0716

Obama’s Plan to Line US Roads with Electric Vehicle Chargers 0716

Wireless Charging is the Key to Unlocking an Electric Vehicle Revolution 0516
     Buses are the first-est market, but delivery trucks and cars (especially self-driving ones) are not far behind. 

Japan Now Has More Electric Car Charge Points than Petrol Stations 0516

California Regulators Approve $45M San Diego Electric Vehicle Charger Rollout 0216

NRG Is Testing Vehicle-to-Grid Integration 1215

China to Hasten Roll-out of Car Charging Network 1015

Japan's Top 3 Automakers to Spend $50 Million to Subsidize Hydrogen Stations 0715

Startup’s New Idea - Free EV Charging for the Masses 0615

BMW, Nissan to Expand Green Cars Plug-in Network in South Africa 0515

Utilities Push Into Fuel Stations for Electric Cars 0215

High-Speed Electric Car Chargers to Link San Diego, SF, Portland 0115

West Coast Electric Highway Now Serves Thousands of Electric Car Drivers 0115

Electric Cars Get Big Boost with Charging Stations in Germany 1214

How We Could Put an EV Charging Station on Every Lamp Post 1214

California Extends Support for Plug-in Cars 1214

The One Variable That Will Determine Tesla's Future 1214

China’s Green Car Buyers Decry Lack of Charging Stations 1114

Recharging Industry Rises 1113

South Korean Road Wirelessly Recharges Buses 0813

Electric Cars Begin to Earn Money From the Grid 0413

Kroger to Put Vehicle Charging Stations in California, Arizona 0413 

Shanghai Plans 5,000 EV Charge Stations 0313

Pentagon Places Big Bet on Vehicle to Grid 0213

Wireless Power for Plug-In Devices 1212 

Walgreens to Install 800 EV Charging Stations by 2012 0711 

Hertz to Install 16 Solar Power Systems 0211 

Ford, PGE Ready Portland for EVs 0810 

Consumers Prefer to Charge EVs at Home 0710 

Connecticut Network of Electric Car Charging Stations 0409 

Battery Exchange Stations for Electric Cars 0409 

Start-Up Plans Electric-Car Network 1108

Vehicles - Self-Driving Cars & Car Sharing

Here’s How Self-Driving Cars Could Catch On 0518

GM’s Latest Car Gives Up Steering Wheels, Pedals — and Human Control 0118

Truck Drivers like Me Will Soon Be Replaced by Automation 1117

Those 40-Ton Trucks Tailgating Each Other? Soon It May Be Normal and Safe 1017

Self-Driving Cars Could Ease Traffic, but Increase Sprawl 1017

End of the Road - Will Automation Put an End to the American Trucker? 1017

This Is How Big Oil Will Die 0517

US Cities Starting to Expand Transportation Options for Low-Income Residents 0817

Why Driverless Cars Might Not Hit the Road So Fast 0817

House Panel Approves Bill to Speed Deployment of Self-Driving Cars 0717

Self-Driving Cars on the Brink of a Revolution in California 0317

Paris Tests Electric Driverless Minibus to Fight Pollution 0117

Ford Is Revving Up Its Plans for Electric and Driverless Vehicles 0117

Carpooling Apps Could Slash Congestion, Fuel Use, and Emissions 0117

Driverless Electric Cars Could ‘Cut Air Pollution to Almost Zero and Make Car Parks Obsolete within 10 Years' 1216

Elon Musk Reveals Part 2 of his 'Master Plan' for Tesla 0716

How Much Does Car-Sharing Benefit the Environment? 0716

Uber and Millennials Help US Cities Cut Car Addiction 0516

Self-Driving Cars May End Gasoline Era 0416

Driverless Cars May Slow Pollution 0116

Autonomous and Connected Car Technology May Progressively Curb Emissions 0914

Google to Start Building Its Own Self-Driving Cars 0514

Automated Vehicles, Talking Cars Pose Policy Questions 0513

Toyota to Reveal Self-Driving Car 0113

Vehicles - Cars & Trucks - Fleets

Wireless Charging is the Key to Unlocking an Electric Vehicle Revolution 0516 - Buses are the first-est market, but delivery trucks and cars (especially self-driving ones) are not far behind. 

A Move to Greener Trucks and Buses 0316

U.K. City Is Designing a Future of Fewer Cars - by Focusing on Its Roads 1015

'Robocabs' Can Drive Down Pollution 0715

Car-Sharing Gears Up in German Cities 0813

Gas Prices Drive Fuel-Efficient Car Rental Fleets 0613

Green Fleet Briefing 0911 

Green Fleet Roundup 0411 

GE to Buy 25K EVs by 2015 - 1110 

GE to Order 25K Electric Vehicles 1010 

US Car Fleet Shrank 4 Million in 2009 - 0110 

Duke & FPL to Go All Electric Vehicles 0909

Vehicles - Cars & Trucks - Misc. Cars

Germany Wants to Ban Fossil-Fuel-Powered Cars 1016

Researchers Think We’re Nearing ‘Peak Car’ - with Dramatic Consequences 0916

Delhi, World's Most Polluted City, Plans New Limits on Car Use 0216

How Big Cities Are Finding Innovative Ways to Nudge People to Ditch Cars 0116

Volkswagen Says 800,000 Cars May Have False CO2 Levels 1115

U.K. City Is Designing a Future of Fewer Cars - by Focusing on Its Roads 1015

Buying a Car Could Soon Be Passé.  Ford Wants to Find What’s Next. 0615

Millennials' Shift Away from Driving Is More than Temporary 1014

Stats Show Americans Not That into Driving Anymore 0813

Why Diesels Are Gaining Momentum in Diesel-Hostile U.S. 0813

Diesel Car Efficiency, Imported From Europe 0713

More Chinese Cities Likely to Curb Auto Sales 0713

Diesel Cars Make Comeback in California 0613

The Great Power Train Race 0413 - in-depth discussion of 5 major technologies that improve efficiency

Young Americans Ditch the Car 0912

Reducing Friction (& Gas Use) in Cars 0112

Nissan Aims to Cut CO2 20% by 2016 - 1011

EU Proposes Banning Gasoline Cars by 2050 - 0311 


Vehicles - Cars & Trucks - Trucks

Thor Electric Truck Will Probably Beat Tesla’s to Market 1217

Tesla Reveals Battery-Powered Semi-Truck 1117

Truck Drivers like Me Will Soon Be Replaced by Automation 1117

Those 40-Ton Trucks Tailgating Each Other? Soon It May Be Normal and Safe 1017

End of the Road - Will Automation Put an End to the American Trucker? 1017

In Run on Less Roadshow, Semi-Trucks Topped 10 MPG in Real-World Driving 0917

Elon Musk Says Tesla Will Unveil an Electric Semi Truck In September 0417

Cities Shop for $10 Billion of Electric Cars to Defy Trump 0317

New Fuel-Efficiency Standards for Heavy-Duty Trucks, Vans, Buses 0816

Mercedes Debuts World's First Fully Electric Big Rig 0716

Elon Musk’s Tesla ‘Master Plan’ Involves Trucks, Buses and a Compact SUV 0716

Wireless Charging is the Key to Unlocking an Electric Vehicle Revolution 0516
     Buses are the first-est market, but delivery trucks and cars (especially self-driving ones) are not far behind. 

A Move to Greener Trucks and Buses 0316

US Plans New Truck Emission Rules 0615

Tesla Co-Founder Sees Future in Electric Commercial Truck 0615

Natural Gas Powered Trucks to Help or Hinder Emissions-Reductions? 0515

Work More, Refuel Less - Efficiency Opportunities for Vans, Heavy-Duty Pickups 0515

Tesla’s Forgotten Co-Founder Wants to Electrify America’s Garbage Trucks 0215

On L.A.'s New E-Highway, Trucks to Hook Up For a Silent, Zero-Emission Drive 1114

Big Trucks Still Rule Detroit in Energy-Conscious Era 1113

Electric Trucks Have Lower Life-Cycle Costs than Diesel 0212

Boosting Semis' MPG 50% 0110

Navistar's All-Electric Truck 0909

Electric Truck - 100 Mile Range, $25K - 0909

100 mpg Truck for US 0409

Vehicles - Cars & Trucks - Buses

Electric School Buses Can Be Backup Batteries For the US Power Grid 0518

5 Breakthroughs That Could Make You Love the Bus 0518

China Is Making Electric Buses Cheap 0418  - below: Compare to 3¢ / kilometer fuel cost (14¢ also incluing capital, maintenance, insurance) for electric car in US Northeast.

Chicago Seeks to Expand Its Electric Bus Fleet 0118

These Electric Buses Could Start Cleaning Up National Park Travel 1217

These City Bus Routes Are Going All-Electric ― and Saving Money 1017

Paris Tests Electric Driverless Minibus to Fight Pollution 0117

This Electric Bus Recharges at Bus Stops in Just a Few Minutes 0117

It’s Time to Go Back to School – Is It Also Time to Go Electric? 0916

This New Electric Bus Can Drive 350 Miles on 1 Charge 0916

New Fuel-Efficiency Standards for Heavy-Duty Trucks, Vans, Buses 0816

Elon Musk’s Tesla ‘Master Plan’ Involves Trucks, Buses and a Compact SUV 0716

Wireless Charging is the Key to Unlocking an Electric Vehicle Revolution 0516
     Buses are the first-est market, but delivery trucks and cars (especially self-driving ones) are not far behind. 

New Zealand's Largest Bus Company to Retrofit Fleet with Electric Engines 0416

A Move to Greener Trucks and Buses 0316

That's the Brakes - Using Stored Energy from Public Transit for Grid Services 0216

London Set to Trial 1st All-Electric Double-Decker Bus 0615

Schools Turn to Propane Buses, as Stricter Emissions Standards Loom 0515

Tesla for Buses?  A Green Technology Looks to Prove Itself. 0415

UK's 1st ‘Poo Bus' Goes into Regular Service 0315

Tesla for the Masses - Electric, Fuel Cell Buses Take Off 0315

Wireless Electric Bus Charges Instantly at Every Stop 1013

South Korean Road Wirelessly Recharges Buses 0813

Europe Vies with China in Electric Bus Race 0813 

In Europe, Greener Transit on Existing Infrastructure 0713 

Vehicles - Cars & Trucks - Hydrogen & Fuel Cell Vehicles

Toyota Clings to Hydrogen Bet while Electric Sales Soar 1117

Hydrogen-Powered Trains Are Coming to Germany in 2021 - 1117

Hydrogen Could Deliver 1/5 of World Carbon Cuts by 2050 - Industry Group 1117

Fuel-Cell Cars Finally Drive off the Lot 0917

Toyota, Shell Among Giants Betting $10.7 Billion on Hydrogen 0117

Lack of Cheap, Clean Hydrogen Slows Fuel-Cell Cars 1016

Hydrogen Cars & Electrolyzers - Dawn of Australia's Hydrogen Economy?

Nissan to Develop Ethanol-Based Fuel Cell Technology by 2020 - 0616

Honda, Toyota & Hyundai Fuel Cell Cars Are Coming, but They Won't Be Cheap 0116

Mass-Market Hydrogen Cars Take to Britain's Roads 1115

Toyota Aims to Nearly Eliminate Gasoline Cars by 2050 - 1015

Japan's Top 3 Automakers to Spend $50 Million to Subsidize Hydrogen Stations 0715

Meet the Mirai - Why Toyota Wants to Make Your Next Car Run on Hydrogen 0515

Can Hydrogen-Fueled Cars Rise in China? 0415

Hydrogen, Hydrogen Everywhere 0315

Tokyo to Get $385 Million Hydrogen Makeover for Olympics 0115

Toyota Hopes to Recreate Prius Success with Hydrogen-Powered Mirai 1114

Toyota Plans ‘Mirai’ Fuel-Cell Car That Can Go 480 Km per Tank 1114

Toyota Quietly Rolls 2015 Fuel Cell Car into Town 0914

VW Says Fuel-Cell Cars Doomed to Struggle Beyond Japan 0914

Hydrogen Highway Inches Closer 0814

Why Automakers Will Build More Hydrogen Fuel Cell Vehicles 0814

Can Cars Run on Hydrogen Made from Plant Sugars? 0814

Seeing Future in Fuel Cells, Toyota Ends Tesla Deal 0514

Electric vs Hydrogen - China Is Battleground for Auto Giants 1113

Fuel-Cell Revolution - Can Toyota Save the Electric Car? 1113

Daimler Group to Spend $500 Million on Filling Stations for Fuel-Cell Cars 0913

GM, Honda to Jointly Develop Hydrogen Fuel-Cell Vehicles by 2020 - 0713

Toyota Seeks Prius-Like Success with 2015 Fuel-Cell Model 0613 

Amory Lovins Tackles Climate Change with Hyper-Efficient Car 0113 

Hydrogen Fuel Cell Cars Rising 1112 

Hydrogen Cars - Their Limitations 0507 

Vehicles - Cars & Trucks - Other

Paris Bans Traffic from Half the City for a Day.  Why Can’t London Too? 0916

Elon Musk Reveals Part 2 of his 'Master Plan' for Tesla 0716 - Self-driving cars and associated car sharing are part of it.

Still No Flying Cars?  The Future of Transit Promises Something Even Better 1115 - driverless cars, on demand

U.K. City Is Designing a Future of Fewer Cars - by Focusing on Its Roads 1015

Low Oil Prices May Bode Ill For Climate 1214

How Americans Have Saved 15 Billion Gallons of Gasoline 1114

Car-Driving Dream Faces China’s Carbon Reality 1114

Can Low Oil Prices be Good for the Environment? 1114

Road to a Traffic Mess in Pakistan 1014 - Traffic jams worsen warming.

End of Car Culture 0613

China's Shijiazhuang Proposes Vehicle Restrictions to Reduce Smog 0613 

Most Cars Driverless by 2040 - 0912

90% of New US Vehicles Could Be EVs & Hybrids by 2030 - 0611 

Market Dominance for Electric Cars by 2030 - 0709


Vehicles - Other - Bicycles

How The Humble Bicycle Can Save Our Cities 0418

US Cities Starting to Expand Transportation Options for Low-Income Residents 0817

More New Yorkers Opting for Life in the Bike Lane 0717

Chinese Discard 100s of Cycles-for-Hire in Giant Piles 0117

Beijing’s Electric Bikes, the Wheels of E-Commerce, Face Traffic Backlash 0516

Moving Beyond the Autobahn - Germany’s New Bike Highways 0216

Shifting Gears to Cycling Would be Big Climate Boost 1115

How to Sell Electric Vehicles?  2- and 3-Wheelers Boom across Asia 0815

Families Ditch Cars for Cargo Bikes 0415

Paris to Double City's Cycling Lanes by 2020 - 0415

Wheel Ambition in London 0215

Commuting by Bike Begins to Roll, Lowering Emissions and Enriching Cities 1214

Regular Bikes Turn into Hybrids – and a Traffic Tool, with New Tech 1114

China Races Ahead of the Pack as Bike Sharing Goes Viral 0814

US Bike-Sharing Fleet More than Doubles in 2013 - 0813

Bicycle Boom in US 0713

In Cargo Delivery, the 3-Wheelers That Could 0713

Dutch Prize Pedal Power, But Sea of Bikes Swamps Amsterdam 0613

Bicycle Sharing Grows Globally 0413

Philippines Gives Green Light to Electric Tricycles 1212


Vehicles - Other - Trains

Hydrogen-Powered Trains Are Coming to Germany in 2021 - 1117

Indian Railways' 1st All Solar-Paneled Train 0516

How Big Cities Are Finding Innovative Ways to Nudge People to Ditch Cars 0116

China's High Speed Rail - All Dressed Up with No Place to Sell? 0215

Speedy Trains Transform China 0913                       map below is from Wikipedia

California Breaks Ground on Bullet Train as Climate Solution 0115

$11 Billion Later, US High-Speed Rail Is Inching Along 0814

Railroads Look Past US Oil-Moving Costs That Favor Pipelines 0913

Elon Musk's Hyperloop - San Francisco to Los Angeles in 30 Minutes? 0813


                   US High-Speed Rail Map, Current     Wikipedia

     The US High Speed Rail Association envisions a network of 220 mph trains, supported by a feed-in network of 110 mph trains, serving smaller cities shown with dots but without names.

In Europe, Greener Transit on Existing Infrastructure 0713  Map below somewhat related.  Wikipedia



World's Longest Hi-Speed Rail Opens in China 1212

Rising Energy Costs Boost Rail's Freight Share 1012

Vehicles - Other - Airplanes

A Radical Way to Cut Emissions – Ration Everyone’s Flights 0518 - cap & trade for flights

This All-Electric Plane Could Change Everything about Regional Air Travel 0418

Express Delivery - Use Drones, Not Trucks, to Cut Carbon Emissions 0218

Electric Planes - European Firms Target Test Flight in 2020 - 1117

Planes across Europe to Start Running on Vegetable Oil and Animal Fat 1017

Zunum’s Hybrid Jet Could Finally Make Electric Flight a Reality 0417

Airplanes Flying on Biofuels Emit Fewer Climate-Warming Particles 0317

A Plane Full of People Just Flew across the US on Wood-Based Fuel 1116

Airlines Embrace Pollution Plan That Could Cost Them $24 Billion 0916

United Nations Seen as Likely Choice for Airline Pollution Cuts 0516

NASA Officially Unveils New Aviation Horizons 0416

United Airlines Is Flying on Biofuels.  Why That’s a Really Big Deal. 0316

U.N. Agency Proposes Limits on Airlines’ Carbon Emissions 0216

NASA Innovations Could Cut Carbon Emissions and Save Airlines $250 Billion 0116

Shipping Industry Protests Call for Tax on Emissions.  Airplane Emissions Soar. 1015

Warming Leads to Longer Flights, More Emissions 0715

5 Technologies That Could Help Curb Airplane Emissions 0615

Surprising Study Suggests Flying May Be Greener than Driving 0415

Hot, Unfriendly Skies Could Alter Flights 0115 - Hotter air imposes lower weight limts on takeoff.

Aviation Industry Set to Triple Its Global Greenhouse Gas Emissions by 2050 - 0115

Greening the Skies 0814

Cheap Airfare Swamps Industry's Emissions Cuts 0814

UN Group Moves to Develop Global Airline Emission Rules 1013

Solar-Powered Travel - New Routes Across Sky, Sea and Land 0813

Hybrid Airplanes to Charge into Action 0813

Airlines Agree on Plan to Offset Emissions 0613 

Reshaping Flight for Fuel Efficiency 0413 

Vehicles - Other - Ships

How Traditional Sailing Could Deliver Zero-Emission Shipping 0518

The Race Is On to Decarbonize the World’s 50,000+ Ships 0518 - many technologies reviewed.
     Cut oil use 45% just by using 5.  Morevoer, switch to LNG, biofuels, wind, nuclear, solar.  Not counting battery-powered.

World Agrees to Cut Shipping Emissions 50% by 2050 - 0418

Shipping Faces Demands to Cut CO2 - 0318

Electric-Powered Ferries Could Be Coming To Washington 0318

World's 1st Electric Container Barges to Sail from European Ports This Summer 0118

The Emission-Free Cruise Ship of the Future? 1215 - 10 sails covered in PV panels, LNG top-up

Shipping Industry Protests Call for Tax on Emissions.  Airplane Emissions Soar. 1015

Marshall Islands, the Flag for Many Ships, Seeks to Rein In Emissions 0615

China’s Growth Fuels Boom in World Shipping Traffic 1114

Rolls-Royce Revives Age of Sail to Beat Fuel-Cost Surge for Freight 0713

Giant Ship Kites to Cut Carbon 0211

Sailing Ships Return 0108





Buildings & Equipment

Graph above is for UK 2020, from Stern Review.  0-9 MT of carbon across, £ / Tonne of carbon down.




     Levelized costs of electricity resource options

     Source: Energy efficiency data represent the results of this analysis for utility program costs (range of four-year averages for 2009-2012).

     Supply costs are from Lazard 2013.  Solar costs have since fallen a good bit.



South Africa Aims for ‘Zero Carbon' Buildings in Green Push 0518

Carbon-less Anode Could Be Aluminum Smelting’s Biggest Advance in 130 Years 0518

Warming Climate to Nearly Double Demand for Cooling Appliances 0418

SkyCool’s New Material Could Improve Air Conditioning Efficiency 20% 0418 - Material’s infrared radiation passes thru air.

Electrification (to Reduce Carbon Emissions) Could Be a Lifeline for Utilities 0318 - electricity for space heating and transport

Tax Breaks and a Google Startup Bringing Earth's Heat into Homes 0218 - ground-source heat pumps

Europe's Microwave Ovens Emit Nearly as Much CO2 as 2-3 Million Cars 0118

Fighting Climate Change, One Laundry Load at a Time 0118

Using Outer Space to Help Cool Buildings on Earth 1017 - Materials that radiate infrared at wavelengths that are not absorbed by greenhouse gases

Indian Builders Pledge “Green" Homes in Race to Meet Climate Goals 0717

Passive Housing Cuts Costs – and Global Warming 0617 - Passive house gets most of the way to zero carbon.

Ultra-Efficient Portland Apartment Building Doesn’t Need Central Heating 0617

Buildings Smarten Up - Consider Occupants, Utility Rates and the Weather 0217

High-Tech Film Cools Buildings without Consuming Energy 0217 white/mirror film with micron bubbles radiates, not absorbs

Emerging Climate Accord Could Push A/C Out of Sweltering India’s Reach 1016

This Building Could End the Office Thermostat War and Abolish Fuel Poverty 0916 at-desk space heaters

The KiloWatt You Never Use - How National Grid Plans to Save Customers $3.6B through Efficiency 0816

Mobile Homes Move toward Efficiency 0816

How Eco Homes Can Cut Your Energy Bills – or Even Make Money 0716 - designer homes

Power Plants Are No longer Biggest US Climate Problem.  Transportation Is. 0616 Buildings and afctories are a close #3.

What Adding 700 Million Air Conditioners Means for the Climate 0516 - Make them VERY efficient.

Your Home Water Heater May Soon Double as a Battery 0216

Those Days You Work From Home May End Up Wrecking the Planet 0216 - Home energy use 20% more for work-at-home.

Fixing Drafty Old Buildings Becomes $20 Billion U.S. Industry 0116

Pushing the Envelope to Make Buildings Greener 0116 - leaks in commercial & industrial buildings in Canada

Your Kitchen Is a Battleground in Obama Energy Efficiency Push 0116
     43 efficiency rules since 2009 will save enough to eliminate 96 power plants.

Posh New York City Hotels Pledge to Go Green 1215

3 Universities Get into Hot Water, Cut Emissions, and Save Money 1015 - all in, hot water is much cheaper than steam

New York City Stores Must Keep Doors Closed if Air-Conditioning Is On 1015

1/3 of US Construction Market Could Be Green by 2018 - 0915

Which of These Student-Designed Solar Houses Will Be the Home of the Future? 0915

India’s Fuel Retailers Bet on Solar Power with Easy Loans 0815

Savvy Ways to Keep Your Home Cool 0715

Europe to America - Your Love of Air-Conditioning Is Stupid 0715

The Home that Pays Its Own Utility Bill (and Then Some) 0715

'Green' Roofs Not Always the Most Energy-Efficient 0615

Report Details Clean Energy Path for West Virginia 0615

In Just a Week, This Kit Turns Old Houses into Zero-Energy Homes (for Free) 0615 - using a very low (social) discount rate

Boston's Logan Airport Drafts Climate Change Plan 0515

Cool Homes, Hot Planet - How Air Conditioning Explains the World 0415

Hand over Control of My Fridge to an Energy Company?  No Thanks, Say Brits 0415

New York Plans Housing Project Upgrades to Reduce Emissions, Utility Costs 0415

Water Source Heat Pumps 'Could Warm a Million Homes in England' 0315

Your High-Rise Is Warming the Globe - Household Emission Tops Calcutta List 0315

Environmental Report Details Heat’s Costly Escape Through Elevator Shafts 0315

Germany Seeks to Boost Renewable Sources of Heating 0315

Apple to Invest €1.7 Billion in Green European Data Centers 0215

EU introduces New Rules to Make Cooking Greener 0215

'Smart’ Windows Could Save Energy 0215

Your Home Is Full of Devices That Never Turn Off, Costing You Money. 0215

Chinese Developers Get Active Building Passive (Superinsulated) Energy Homes 0115

Coffee Machines, etc. to Power Down Under New EU Energy Rules 0115

How Smart Glass Windows Slash Energy Bills 1214

Scientists Take Step Toward Revolutionary Coolant ...  Using Outer Space? 1114

Norwegian House-Power Plant Produces Twice The Energy It Uses 0914

New Air Conditioner Standards Would Be Biggest Energy Saver in DOE History 0814

One Company, OPower, Is Really Psyched about EPA's Big Climate-Change Rule 0814

Your Thermostat Is About to Get 'Smart' 1113

Push Urged for More Cool Roofs for Baltimore 1013

Weatherizing Homes to Uniform Standard Can Save UK $33 Billion Annually 1013

How Hospitals Can Help Fight Climate Change 0813

Radical Norway Retrofit Give Positive Net Energy 0213

Largest US Ground Source Heat Pump at Ball State 0212

Smart Windows 0911

Power Demand from US Homes Falling 0911

Hitachi's Solar Air Conditioning 0111

Commercial Retrofits Could Save $41 Billion by 2020 - 0710

Roof Tiles Change Color to Save Energy 1009

Green Roof CO2 Effects 1009  

Smart Grid Projects 1009

Top 10 Home Energy Myths 0809
1.  Setting the thermostat higher or lower will heat or cool the house faster.
2.  
Heating and cooling systems "work harder" to reach a comfortable temperature, after setback or set forward.
3.  Energy efficiency and energy conservation are the same thing.
4.  When an appliance is turned off, it is off.
5.  CFLs are more harmful for the environment than traditional bulbs, because they contain mercury.
6.  Leaving lights, computers, and appliances on uses less energy than turning them on and off.
7.  Duct tape is the best choice for sealing ducts.
8.  Purchasing an efficient air-conditioner or furnace will automatically reduce energy bills.
9.  Dimming lights by 50% will cut lighting costs in half.
10.  Closing off vents will help to lower heating and cooling costs.

Whole House Fans 0809

Ground Source Heat Pumps 0809 - PDF

Flat TVs Use Potent New Greenhouse Gas 0708

Ice Is Nice 0507 - Make ice at night, melt it by day for cold water to pipe around to cool buildings.  This uses cheap energy at night (wind?) to replace expensive energy (gas? oil? peakers) on hot afternoons.

Ground Source Heat Pumps 0507 


Lights

     The US (like many other nations, China included) has been phasing out incandescent light bulbs: 100-Watt bulbs starting in late 2012, 75-Watt bulbs during 2013, and 40- and 60-Watt bulbs during 2014.  The US efficiency standard driving this is for bulbs yielding 310-2600 lumens.  Europe phased them out earlier.
     The primary alternatives are compact fluorescent lights (CFLs), later light-emitting diodes (LEDs).  Savings from efficient lighting (better ballasts, reflectors, etc.) are even larger in the commercial sector.

Energy Efficiency Technology Less Accessible in Low-Income Neighborhoods 0518 - focus on LEDs and CFLs

India Launches Massive Push for Clean Power, Lighting, and Cars 0517

US Standards Take the Next Step in a Light Bulb Efficiency Revolution 0216

Solar Company Making a Profit from Poor Africans 1215 - $35 upfront + 45¢/day.  That's < the 75¢ cost of energy (60% kerosene) it replaces.  The kit includes a PV panel, a battery, 2 LED light bulbs, an LED flashlight, a cell phone charger & a rechargeable radio.  When the day’s 45¢ payment is made, a SIM card activates the battery. 

Why Compact Fluorescent Light Bulbs Will Be off the Market Soon 0216 - LEDs more efficient, no longer so pricey.

Lighting Paradox - Cheaper, Efficient LEDs Save Energy, So People May Use More 0815

Ikea to Stop Selling Traditional Light Bulbs and Move to LED Ones 0815

LED Streetlights in Brooklyn Are Saving Energy But Exhausting Residents 0315

The Desirable, All-Natural (and Extremely Hard) Way to Light an Office 0315 - all about daylighting

Copenhagen Lighting the Way to Greener, More Efficient Cities 1214

LED Lights Are a 'Transformative Technology' in the Developing World 1014

US Light Bulb Ban Set to Take Effect 1213

CREE's LED Bulb to Revolutionize Home Lighting 0613

Everlasting Light (LEDs) 0613 

India Seeks Return on Efficient Lighting 0413 

LED Bulbs Cheaper and Better 0413 

Plastic FIPEL Bulb More Efficient, Better Quality Llght 1212 

75-Watt Bulb Has Dim Future 1112 

LED to Replace 100-Watt Incandescent Bulb 1112 

LED Bulb for Less Than $15 - 0811 

LED Wallpaper Could Replace Light Bulbs 0109 

Curtains for Incandescent Bulbs 1007 

China KOs Incandescent Bulbs 1007 

Better Lighting 0507 


Storage (x Vehicles)

Musk Says Tesla Can Get Li-Ion Battery Cell Prices below $100/kWh This Year 0618

Highview Power Completes UK Plant to Test ‘Liquid Air’ Storage Technology 0618

Tesla Has Installed a Truly Huge Amount of Energy Storage 0618

Electric School Buses Can Be Backup Batteries For the US Power Grid 0518

South Australia's Grid Service Costs Slashed 90% by Tesla Battery 0518

Massachusetts Is Staring Down a Duck Curve of Its Own.  Storage Could Help. 0418 parallels to California; negative ¢/kWh


     The graph below shows how a remote storage system works, as it is linked to renewable power generation.  The purple area is the key.  When it is above the line, it is charging from excess wind and solar generation, when it is below the line, it is discharging to make up for the lack of renewables.  Notice in the bottom graph how it smooths out the frequency issues for the local grid, which should operate at or close to 50 hertz.  The load, in gray, changes little from minute to minute.

           (from http://reneweconomy.com.au/2013/the-battery-storage-system-that-could-close-down-coal-power-38259)

 is from Bloomberg New Energy Finance in late 2016

Graph at left is from Bloomberg New Energy Finance, New Energy Outlook, June 2016

Battery Energy Storage on Verge of Competing with Natural Gas Peakers 0518

New Manganese Battery Could Serve the Grid 0518

New Lithium-Air Battery Lasts 100s of Cycles Longer than Past Designs 0318

Nearly 1/3 of Planned Gas Peakers at Risk from Energy Storage 0318

The U.S. Just Hit a Major Energy Storage Milestone, in Great News for Solar 0318

Rechargeable Battery Weathers Extreme Cold Conditions 0318 - organic electrolyte doesn’t get more viscous till almost -84°C

Electric Vehicles Benefit More than Just Their Owners 0318 - sorage for grid to even out demand and when sun doesn’t shine and wind doesn’t blow

Battery Storage Could Boost Coal Consumption 0218 - in coal country

US Storage Market Could Reach 50 GW if Costs Keep Falling - Brattle 0218

Batteries Will Boost Yearly Solar Plant Output by 500 MWh, FPL Says 0218

APS to Install 50 MW, 135 MWh Solar-Shifting Battery 0218

Electric Cars Could Destroy the Electric Grid – or Fix It Forever 0218 - dangers of overloading substations

Car ‘Batteries on Wheels' Could Help Solve Renewable Energy's Storage Issue 0118

Tesla’s Enormous Battery in Australia, Just Weeks Old, Is Already Responding to Outages in ‘Record’ Time 1217

Electric Cars and Energy Storage Seen Arriving Early Next Decade 1117

Tesla Wins 100-Day Bet to Build 129 MWh Battery in Australia 1117

MIT Reveals a Battery That Stores Solar Energy to Make Heat for Later 1117

Energy Storage Could Hit 35 GW by 2025, New White Paper Says 1117

Using the Ocean for Future Energy Storage 1017 - pump up, fall down; compress air

Vestas, Windlab to Launch World's 1st Wind-Solar-Storage Project in Australia 1017

Tight Lithium Market Likely to Ease Up in Near Term, BNEF Says 1017

Cheap Sodium Salt Battery Could Shake Up Grid Storage 1017

Storms Spur $22 Billion Investment in Battery-Backed Grids 1017

Electric Car Owners ‘Can Drive for Free by Letting Energy Firms Use Battery' 1017

Pumped Hydro Storage ‘Could Make Australia Run on Renewable Energy Alone within 20 Years' 0917

Behind-the-Meter Storage Has Record Quarter - GTM-ESA 0917

Future of Electrical Energy Storage Solutions Holds No Lithium Supremacy 0917

Researchers to Revive 3,500-Year-Old Technology, Firebricks, for Energy Storage 0917

Silicon Fires Up Renewable Energy Revolution 0917 - storage in silicon

Tesla, Vestas Pair Up to Develop Ways to Combine Storage and Wind 0917

Big Energy Backs Hydrogen Power Storage 0917

Giant Batteries Help Renewable Energy Grow In New England 0917

After Electric Cars, What More Will It Take for Batteries to Change the Face of Energy? 0817

Alphabet [Google] Turns to Molten Salt to Store Clean Energy 0817

Tesla Batteries May Back Up Wind Farm Off Massachusetts Coast 0717

Australia Needs Tesla Battery to Prevent Summer Blackouts, Regulator Says 0717

States Betting on Giant Batteries to Cut Carbon 0617

China Is About to Bury Elon Musk in Batteries 0617

BMW Tests Electric Cars as Power Grid Stabilizers 0617

Tucson Electric Signs Solar + Storage PPA for ‘Less than 4.5¢/kWh’ 0517

Europe Is Building Its Own Battery Gigafactories 0517

Tesla, Green Mountain Power Roll Out $15/Month BTM Battery Program 0517

Storage, Renewables Could Replace New York's Indian Point Nuke 0517

Energy Storage - Weight Tips the Scales in America's Favor 0417

South Australia to Get $1 Billion Solar Farm and World's Biggest Battery 0317

“100% Renewable Energy” Will Require Nukes, CCS and/or Seasonal Storage 0317

Compact, Efficient System Stores Solar Energy in Liquids 0317

Kauai, Hawaiian island, Gets Renewable Energy Boost, Thanks to Tesla 0317

SDG&E, AES Start Up World's Largest Lithium Ion Battery Storage in California 0217

Age of the Giant Battery Is Almost Upon Us 0217 - long-term agreements now

Aluminum Battery with Urea Electrolyte Could Yield Low-Cost Energy Storage 0217

Tesla Moves beyond Electric Cars with New California Battery Farm 0117

Energy Storage Will Increase 40-fold in Developing Countries 0117

Why Surging Lithium Prices Haven't Stopped Falling Battery Energy Storage Costs 0117

Rise of Renewables Leads to Need for More Energy Storage Space 0117

Novel Liquid Battery Could Hold Potential for Unlimited Energy Storage 0117

Cryogenic Storage Offers Hope for Renewable Energy 1216

California Utility Regulators Are Turning Electric Vehicles into Grid Resources 1116

UK’s National Grid to Add 201 MW of Fast-Acting Batteries for Energy Storage 0816

Zinc-Ion Batteries Cut Costs for Grid Energy Storage 0816

Texas Startup's Big Energy Idea - Storing Electricity Underground 0816 - pressurize water into old oil wells, later release it

The New Green Grid - Utilities Deploy ‘Virtual Power Plants’ 0816

Tesla and SolarCity Boards Approve Acquisition 0816

New Lithium-Oxygen Battery Greatly Improves Energy Efficiency, Longevity 0716

Energy Storage System Combines Ultra-Capacitors with Batteries 0716

Australian Company Creates Hydrogen with Near-Zero Emissions 0716

MIT Researchers See a ‘Window of Opportunity' for Non-Battery Storage 0716 It will close within a few years.

Lithium-Ion Battery Prices Down 70%, Opening Up Storage Market Opportunities 0616

How Utilities Can Gain from the Coming Boom in Electric Vehicles 0616 - Use vehicles as grid storage and balancing.

Falling Cost of Solar and Wind Could Limit Energy Storage Profitability 0616

Energy Storage Market to Equal Rooftop Solar by 2028 - 0616

Why the Tesla Boom Could Be Very Good News for the Electric Grid 0616

The World Nears Peak Fossil Fuels for Electricity 0616 - Storage enables more renewables.

Tesla’s July 29 Gigafactory Grand Opening Date Is a Milestone 0516
     Powerwall batteries are built there now.  Ones for Model 3 sedan will be built there later.

Duke Rolls Out Long + Short Duration Hybrid Battery Storage System 0316

After Record Year, U.S. Energy Storage Forecast to Exceed 1 GW in 2019 - 0316

Your Home Water Heater May Soon Double as a Battery 0216

SolarCity’s Kaua’i Solar Plus Storage Project to Use Tesla Batteries 0216

By Fighting Rooftop Solar, Utilities Set Themselves Up for Worse to Come 0216 - Storage enables going fully off-grid.

Revenue for Utility-Scale Battery Storage to Grow 15 x by 2025 - 0116

Storage Market for Solar Systems to Hit $8 Billion by 2026 - 0116

Energy Storage Developer Orison Unveils Plug-and-Play Residential Storage 0116 - 40 pounds, 2.2 kWh for $2,000

Tesla Shifts Production to its Gigafactory, to Accommodate Powerwall Demand 0116

Technical Advances Drive Flow Batteries Closer to Mass Commercialization 0116

One Step Closer to Turning Water into Hydrogen Fuel, Affordably 0116

More than MegaWatts - New Metrics Reveal Energy Storage's Potential 1215

AES’ Huge (1 GWh) Deal Shows that the Battery Revolution Has Arrived 1215

Home Solar Battery Revolution an Economic and Emissions Game Changer 1215

Vermont Utility Teams with Tesla to Offer Home Battery Installment Plan 1215

PG&E Contracts for 75 MW of Energy Storage, on Its Way to 580 MW of Storage Capacity 1215

Solar Company Making a Profit from Poor Africans 1215 - $35 upfront + 45¢/day.  That's < the 75¢ / day cost of energy (60% kerosene) it replaces.  The kit includes a PV panel, a battery, 2 LED light bulbs, an LED flashlight, a cell phone charger & a rechargeable radio.  When the day’s 45¢ payment is made, a SIM card activates the battery.

Grid-Scale Lithium-Ion Battery Storage Prices Will Fall 50% by 2019 - 1115

Tesla Competitor Sonnenbatterie Unveils Community Solar-Storage System 1115

NRG Is Testing Vehicle-to-Grid Integration 1215

California Water Agency to Use Tesla Battery to Slash Peak Demand up to 14% - 1115

Kotzebue, Alaska Turns to Cold-Weather Battery Micro-Grid as Diesel Alternative 1115

This Could Be the Biggest Sign Yet That the Battery Revolution Is Here 1115

New Batteries Make Rapid Progress, but Market Expectations Move Faster 1015

Even after Dark, Vast Spanish Solar Plant Harnesses Sun's Power 1015

Want a Solar-Powered Home?  Here's a New Battery That Won't Ignite 0915

Hydrogen Economy Is Emerging from Excess Wind Power in Germany 0915

Spurred by Innovators like Tesla, the Energy Storage Business Is Growing Fast 0915

Massachusetts Tackles Holy Grail of Energy Storage 0715

Battery Revolution Will Let Us All Be Power Brokers 0715

Siemens to Open Plant to Turn Electricity from Wind into Hydrogen 0715

G.M. and Nissan Are Reusing Old Electric Car Batteries 0615

Tesla Partners With Battery Researcher to Lower Costs 0615

Energy Storage Battery Sales Take Off, to Smooth Power Demand on Grid 0515

Tesla's Battery Grabbed $800 Million in Its First Week 0515

Tesla Makes Itself the Center of the Energy-Storage Universe 0515

Full Simulation of the Tesla Battery - Insights for Investors 0515

Tesla Ventures into Solar Power Storage for Home and Business 0515

Tesla Powerwall Home Battery Means inexpensive Time-Shifting for Solar Energy 0515

  

Grid-Scale Batteries Make Rapid Inroads to Support Europe’s Power Grid 0415

Tesla’s Next Big Idea - Storing Power 0415

The Way We Power Our Homes May Be on the Verge of a Major Change 0415

Bendy Battery Promises Safe, Speedy Charging 0415 - Aluminum could replace lithium.

Solar Power, and Somewhere to Store It 0315

Waste-to-Energy Revolution Boosted by Bio-Battery Idea 0315

Tesla Home Battery Could Be in Production in 6 Months 0215

Super-Capacitor Makers Charge Ahead 0215

9 Reasons Not to Be Depressed about the Planet 0115

Cambridge Company’s Battery May Give Grid a Boost 1214

Energy Storage Plans Gain Ground in California 1214

Texas Law May Short-Circuit an Advance in Storing Electricity 1214  Transmission company can’t sell electricity wholesale.

Smooth Operators - Grid-Scale Storage 1214

Why Elon Musk's Batteries Scare the Hell Out of the Electric Company 1214

New York City Tries to Cram in Some Energy Storage 1114

Power Storage Group Alevo Plans $1 Billion US Battery Plant 1014

Innovations in Energy Storage Provide Boost for Renewables 1014

Electric Cars Have Batteries.  Why Not Power Plants? 1014

Is There a Successful Energy Storage Technology on the Horizon? 1014

Energy for a Rainy Day, or a Windless One 1014

 How Lithium Battery Storage Costs Could Plunge Below $100/kWh - 1014

Giant Underground Reservoir Keeps Downtown Helsinki Air Conditioner- Free  1014

Storing Renewable Energy in a Thousand Basements 0914

New Face of Electricity - Large Scale Storage 0814

Stanford Researchers Claim Major Breakthrough in Lithium Battery Design 0714

Why Australian Households Are Desperate for Battery Storage 0714

Elon Musk Sees Nearly Unlimited Demand for Energy Storage 0514

A Better Battery 0414

Is This Flow Battery the Big Breakthrough for Renewable Energy? 0114

The Battery Storage System That Could Close Down Coal Power 1113

Battery-Stored Solar Power Sparks Backlash From Utilities 1013

California Adopts Nation’s 1st Energy Storage Plan 1013

Green-Energy Storage - The Next Big Thing 0913

Super-Capacitors Amp Up as an Alternative to Batteries 0813

Waste CO2 as Power Source, New Super-Capacitor & Hydrogen from Sunlight 0813

California Aims to 'Bottle Sunlight' in Energy Storage Push 0813

NH Firm Makes ‘Battery’ Out of Air, to Power Hundreds of Homes 0913

Finn Researchers Make Cheap Biofuel, US Ones Pull Hydrogen from Water 0813

Battery Seen as Way to Cut Heat-Related Power Losses 0713

Wood is Key Ingredient in Cheap Rechargeable Battery 0613

Better Batteries That Can Revolutionize Solar, Wind Power 0513

Process to Make Hydrogen to Make Renewable Energy Reliable 0313

Flow Batteries Could Back Up Future Grid 0313

Advanced Electricity Storage Overview 0910 - PDF

Lithium-Air (Rechargeable?) Makes for Cheaper, Lighter Car Batteries 0610 - Li-ion stores maximum of 110 Watt-hr / lb

Race to Develop Large Scale Storage 0909

Cheap H2O Split for Solar Storage 0808

Batteries for Power Grid 1007

Compressed Air Energy Storage 0606 - PDF

Flywheel Energy Storage 0506

General
Winning the Oil Endgame 0509

     To track savings from appliance and other energy standards, click here.

Hydrogen Could Deliver 1/5 of World Carbon Cuts by 2050 - Industry Group 1117

Phasing Out Cookstoves a ‘Win-Win’ for Climate and Health 0217 - Substitute biogas & electricity for coal, wood, dung.

Will New England Electricity Consumption Continue to Stay Flat? 0816

World’s 200-Year Energy Demand Boom Seen Peaking by the 2050s - 0816

Vancouver Plans to Go 100% Renewable.  What are the Challenges? 0716

Cheap Electricity when the Wind Blows, under Climate Change Plan 1215

These Clean Energy Investments Could Save the World’s Cities $ Trillions 0915

Forget about Saving Energy.  This Is about Saving Lives. 0815

Surprising Benefit of Electric Cars - Cooler Cities 0315

To Save Power, Appeal to Health Benefits 0115

China Imports Danish Technology to Clean Coal-Choked City 1214

Want People to Save Energy?  Just Ask Nicely.  (It Works.) 0115

Massachusetts, California Lead US In Energy Efficiency 1014

Americans Can Save More Money by Not Burning It 1014

How California Can Kick Fossil Fuels by 2050 - 1014

Louisville Encouraged to Go on 'Energy Diet' 1014

26% CO2 Reduction from US Power Sector with No Net Cost to the Economy 0414

B.C. Firm Looks at Sewers to Power Sustainable Energy Shift 1013

Bypassing the Power Grid 1013

Cooker Reduces Black Carbon Problem 0913

Pressurized Water Pipes Are Full of Power We Waste 0313

Smart Grid 0111

US Energy Use Fell 4.5% in 2009 0810

MA to Cut GHG 18% by 2020 - 0210

MA to Cut GHG 18.6% by 2020 - 0210 - PDF

Toward Zero Waste 1009

US Cuts CO2, Big Time 0909

US GHG Cuts - Executive Summary - McKinsey & Co 1107 - PDF   This has a GHG abatement supply curve (using ~ 60 technologies, similar to one above "US" in Overviews).  The US can reduce GHG emissions in 2030 by 3.0-4.5 GT of CO2 equivalent (50-70% of US GHG emissions), at marginal costs less than $50 per ton, much lower if much of the reduction comes from energy efficiency.  Of this, 0.7-0.9 comes from buildings & appliances, 0.3-0.7 from transportation, 0.6-0.8 from industry, 0.5-0.6 from carbon sinks (certain agriculture practices), and 0.8-1.6 from power generation.

Tackling Climate Change in the U.S. - American Solar Energy Society 0107 - PDF, 204 pp - It relies on DSM and renewables.

Energy Efficiency - General - US, Northeast, & Elsewhere

     Appliance efficiency standards, like lighting standards, operate in the background to reduce electricity use, mostly residential, such as kWh use by refrigerators, clothes washers, and air conditioners.  Many appliances earn the Energy Star label, as particularly efficient.

Energy Efficiency Is a Climate Policy Trump Might Not Hate 0518

Energy Efficiency Technology Less Accessible in Low-Income Neighborhoods 0518 - focus on LEDs and CFLs

Carbon Markets Pay Off for These States as New Businesses, Jobs Spring Up 0418 - RGGI

Feds Shelve Required Plans to Put Updates to Appliance Standards 1217

U.S. Cuts to Energy Star Could Spell Trouble for Canadian Climate Plan 1017 - Canada’s Energy Star depends a lot on US Energy Star equipmnt certifications.

New York, Other States Take on Trump over Energy Efficiency 0417

Don’t Tread on ENERGY STAR 0317

Energy Efficiency Could Offset Indian Point Shutdown 0217

Trump’s Regulations Freeze Halts 4 Rules to Promote More Energy Efficiently 0117 - portable A/C, commerical boilers, walk-in coolers, etc.

Pathways to Cut US Energy Use 34% by 2040 - ACEEE 1216 - PDF, 43 pp

EU Hits Energy Reduction Target 6 Years Early 0916

New Membrane Could Save $2 Billion a Year for U.S. Industries 0816

Coal Plants Disappeared from MidContinent ISO -- and So Did Demand 0516

Obama Administration Touts Energy Efficiency as a Climate Side Bet 0316

Supreme Court Backs FERC in Demand Response Power Saving Rule 0116

How Montreal Can Reduce Its Carbon Footprint 0116

Massachusetts Utilities Target $20+ Billion in Efficiency Savings over a Decade 1215

U.S. Government’s Energy Use Hits 40-Year Low 1215

Energy Efficient Cars, Fridges Seen Aiding Climate, GDP 1115

The Next Big Change to How We Use Energy Is WHEN We Use It 0815

Maryland Utilities Ordered to Boost Energy-Saving Efforts 0715

Circular Economy Could Cut Carbon Emissions 70% by 2030 - 0415

Regulators - Michigan Energy Saving Programs Work 1114

Efficiency and Renewables Cut Growth In New England Electricity Use  0914

Europe May Cut Its Dependence on Russian Gas by Using Energy Efficiency 0914

Reduced Demand Powers a Growing Electricity Surplus Across Australia 0814

Costs of Electric Technologies - ACEEE 0314 - PDF, press release

Italy’s Electricity Down 3.4%.  33% Renewable - 0114

Summary of US Electric Efficiency Savings, Expenditures, and Budgets (2011-12) - Cooper & Wood 0313 - PDF, 22 pp

SAVINGS, EXPENDITURES, AND

BUDGETS (2011-2012)



     113 TWh is ~2.75% of US electricity use.




     Below, DR stands for Demand Reduction, such as interrupting power to some lights or turning up thermostats,  on very hot summer days, to avoid blackouts.

     These 2 tables and 2 figures (above & below) about energy efficiency come from the IIE's March 2013 report by Coooper & Wood (above).

     IIE's savings are annual savings from annual program efforts:  net savings where available (38%), but gross (33%) or incremental (30%) where not.


     For the top 10, per capita expenditures are highest in MA ($59), followed by CA $34, NY $28, WA $24, PA $22, FL $20, NJ $18, OH $15, & IL $12.






Energy Efficiency - Which Technology is the Most Cost Effective? 1213

DOE Proposes New Efficiency Standards for Electric Motors 1113

New England Efficiency More Than Offsets Load Growth 1113 - PDF, press release

Energy Efficiency Investment Shows Pay Off in New England Forecast 1113

2011 REED Annual Savings Report - NEEP 1013 - PDF, 71 pp   Electric savings from efficiency gains exceeded load growth.
     NET savings (NEEP) are lower than IIE's (gross).  Net savings subtract (from gross) estimates of what would have happened absent a program.

     Annual net savings from annual program installations, from Northeast Energy Efficiency Partnerships (NEEP): Regional Energy Efficiency Database: Program Year 2011 Annual Report.  Weighted average = 1.1% of sales.



     Below left, annual GWh savings in
blue use left axis, million $ expense in red, right axis.  See 16% fall in cost per GWh saved over 3 years.



      For natural gas, 8-state savings averaged ~0.34% of sales (vs ~1.12% electric). Gas levelized cost of energy saved was ~ $5 / million Btu and average measure life was ~ 15 years.



     These 2 NEEP tables show assumed measure lives that are typical, but not unanimous, across the region.

     Massachusetts measure lives, across all programs, averaged 14.7 years over 1989-2002. Now  lives average lower.

     Measure lives, especially for the biggest saving measures, were evaluated by going back years later to see what's in place and still working.  They use informed assumptions.
     The 8-state cumulative (see below) avoided CO2 emissions approach 100 times this annual 1.75 million tons; they amount to about 3% of total annual US CO2 emissions.  The average cost to reduce emissions, using a 10-year average measure life, is about $1.75 per ton of CO2.  This is a little lower than the trading price for CO2 allowances in the region and much lower than CO2 prices elsewhere.


Energy Efficiency - More of General

Energy Efficiency Becomes Breakthrough Issue in French Election 0417

A Roadmap for Rapid Decarbonization 0317 - broad & detailed blueprint, mostly technological, by decade, of how to go carbon neutral (net-zero emissions) by 2050 and carbon-negative afterward.  Science journal

EU Energy Use to Fall 30%, under New Efficiency Plans for 2030 - 1116

Low Natural Gas Price to Hamper U.S. Energy Efficiency - IEA 1013

How Denmark Turned an Efficiency Obligation into Opportunity 1013

Conservation More Lucrative as Coal Power Fades 1013

Energy Efficiency - How the Internet Can Lower Your Electric Bill 1013

Mayors Leading an Urban Revolution 1013

Intelligent Efficiency - Opportunities, Barriers, and Solutions 1013

Texas, Where Oil Rules, Turns Its Eye to Energy Efficiency 0913

Boston Tops Ranking of Energy-Efficient US Cities 0913

UK Urged to Invest £50 Billion in a Greener Economic Recovery 0913

Energy Savings Simply in the Power of Observation 0913 - basis of behavioral programs, the big new thing (1.9% of Northeast savings - telling customers how many kWh they used compared to neighbors)

5 Caribbean States Join Pilot for Energy Efficiency 0813

Britain's Home-Grown Energy Revolution 0813

Microwave Oven Rule Shows Obama’s Climate Policies 0613

Firms That Pledge to Save Energy Likeliest to Invest in Efficiency Measures 0613 

Cleaner, Cheaper Way to Make Steel Uses Electricity 0513 

Copenhagen’s Ambitious Push to Be Carbon Neutral by 2025 0413 

Electric Demand to Fall 5-15% by 2020 0911

China Accelerates Energy Efficiency Goal 0311

Wal-Mart Measures to Save Energy and GHGs 1110 

Electric Efficiency Potential in New England - NEEP 1010 - PDF, 48 pp

Electric Peak Pricing Pilot 1109

Smart Grid Project Winners 1009

China Targets 20% Cut in Energy per Unit of GDP 1009

States Invest More in Energy Efficiency 1009

Obama Sets 2020 Emissions Agency Goals 1009

Energy-Intense China to Raise Energy Efficiency 20% - 0909

Energy Efficiency Could Save US $1.2 Trillion 0809 - McKinsey & Co. study

Summary of Energy Efficiency $ Benefits - ACEEE 0709

Positive Aspects of Climate Change Policies: What the Historical evidence Can Tell Us - ACEEE 0709 - PDF, 36 pp.  This is a summary of the $ benefits of energy efficiency: $2 trillion by 2050.

Wal-Mart Tracks Energy in Products 1007

MA Electricity Savings 1989-2002.XLS

  The MA Savings spreadsheet above contains a summary across 8 utility companies in Massachusetts for 14 years: costs & net benefits; savings - annual, lifetime and cumulative; savings by program type and by major technology; etc.  Cumulative savings (to 2002) were 57% of annual use, at 3.8¢/kWh, similar to costs 10 years later (see NEEP 8-state table, above).

     Above and to the left are 3 graphs drawn from the summary.  Cumulative savings recognize that a modest fraction of equipment installed in early years stopped working or was replaced (savings expired) by the end of 2002.

     Net annual savings have since increased year by year, from ~0.6% in 2000-01 to 1.7% in 2011, via aggressive targets and stepped-up efforts.  See NEEP 1013 bar graph, above.
    So have 
lifetime and cumulative savings.  Massachusetts energy efficiency programs since 1989 have saved enough electricity to power the state for almost 1.5 years.  Lifetime savings from 1 year's equipment installed now amount to almost 1/4 of annual sales.


     At left, % savings by technology in other states and in more recent years is not very different from the Massachusetts mix shown at left.  HVAC = Heating, Ventilation & Air Conditioning.  Industrial Process.  Refrigeration.  Motors = motors other than HVAC, Process, and Refrig.




Misc.

Data Centers Finally Using Less Electricity 0716

Making Concrete Green - Re-inventing the World's Most Used Synthetic Material 0316

Data Centers to Use 3 Times as Much Energy in Next Decade, Experts Warn 0116

Save More than 4 Million Lives a Year by Harnessing the Sun to Cook 0116

India Sees Clean Cooking as Climate Action That Saves Lives 1115

Texas Utility Offers a Nighttime Special - Free Electricity 1115

How to Grow Bricks from Trillions of Bacteria 1015

Climate-Friendly Refrigerants 0315

EPA's Carbon Rule Could Spur $2.5B in Power Line Investment 0315

China Finds Waste Is a Terrible Thing to Waste 0115

Yak Dung Is Making Climate Change Worse 1214 - for cooking and heating.  Soot.  Indoor particulate pollution is bad too.

Western Diet's Spread Bad for Health, Climate?  It Doesn't Have to Happen 1114

Vacuum Cleaner for the Web's Dusty Corners 1014

Could Desalination Solve California’s Water Problem? 1014

New Formula Could Cut Pollution from Concrete 0914

Switch to Natural Gas Won't Reduce Carbon Emissions Much, Study Finds 0914

4 Ways Your City Can Be Cooler Next Summer 0814

Can a Camp Stove (That Charges iPhones) Save Millions of Lives? 1113

World Bank Urges Better Cookstoves in Developing States to Curb Deaths 1113

Shouting Green Message from Rooftops 0913

No, your phone doesn't use as much electricity as a refrigerator. 0813 - no numbers, rebuttal

Data Centers Caught in War Between Fossil Fuels, Renewables 0813 - almost no numbers, rebuttal

Surprisingly Large Energy Footprint of the Digital Economy 0813 - based on Raghavan & Ma, below

Greener Concrete 0413

40% of Food Is Wasted 0812

Proposed DOE Transformer Standards Sacrifice Savings 0212

Energy Use by the Internet - Raghavan & Ma 1111

  
     These are worldwide figures.  750 million each of desktop and laptop computers, 1 billion smart phones, 100 million each of servers and WiFi/LAN, 50 million Cloud.  Worldwide power supply is ~5,000 GW.  This suggests the internet used 3-6% of grid power in 2010.  Their analysis assumes that desktops are switched on 1/2 the time and laptops 3/4, while 1/2 their on-time is devoted to internet use.  Embodied power is energy required to make a device, divided by its lifetime.  Devices are replaced.

Supreme Court Decision on EPA Regulating CO2 from Cars 0407 - PDF, 66 pp

by Gene Fry 2018