Ice

     Below are articles about ice, arranged in 7 major groups: Ice Dynamics, Antarctica, Greenland, Other Glaciers, Combined Regions, Arctic Ocean Ice, and Snow.  The many articles on permafrost and seabed methane hydrates are found on the Carbon + & - page.

     Month and year follow each article's name.  PDF files are so marked, after month and date, some with authors noted.  Within sections, more recent files appear above older files.

Ice Dynamics

     Several of the articles below point to faster changes observed in glaciers and ice sheets than models allow for.  That is, ice models need to be improved to account better for the processes identified.  The upshot is that ice loss generally occurs faster that models project.  This implies that sea level, during this century, will rise faster than some projections.

Global Warming Is Destabilizing Mountain Slopes, Creating Landslide Risks 0918

Global Warming Is Melting Antarctic Ice from Below 0518

Undermined by Warm Water, West Antarctic Glacier Lost 1,607 Feet of Ice Thickness in under 10 Years 1016

Record Greenland Melting Caused by Surprising Feedback Loop 0616 - Growing Arctic sea ice LOSS warms ice more.

These Elephant Seals Taught Scientists Why Antarctica Is Melting So Fast 0616
     Osur ensors on them measure sea warming to melt ice shelves and glaciers from below.

Better Models of Antarctic Ice Collapse Show Much Faster Sea Level Rise 0416

Bacteria Could Be Speeding Up the Darkening of Greenland's Ice 0316

James Hansen Warns of Much Worse than Expected Sea Level Rise 0316 - take 2 on study below

We Had All Better Hope These Scientists Are Wrong about Earth’s Future 0316 - take 1 on study below

Ice Melt, Sea Level Rise and Superstorms: Evidence from Paleoclimate Data, Climate Modeling, and Modern Observations that 2°C Global Warming is Dangerous - Hansen et al. 0316  - PDF, 20 pp. - abridgement of the peer-reviewed publication
     Cold icemelt from Antarctica spreads out along the ocean surface.  That prevents the vertical mixing (warmer water to the top) there that has driven the great ocean circulation.  In Antarctica, the warmer water below the ice eats away at placiers from underneath.  Cold icemelt from Greenland leads to shutdown of the Atlantic overturning circulation.
     Ice losses from Greenland and Antartica grow, modelled as exponentially, with doubling times of 10, 20, or 40 years.  Sea level rises non-linearly, 5-9 meters over 50 to 150 years.  This is simlar to what happened 120,000 years ago, when sea levels rose from 3-4 meters higher than today to about 9 meters higher, including 2-3 meters within several decades.  (For perspective, the sea level range (maximum - minimum) over the recent ice ages was about 125 meters.)

Greenland’s Melting Is ‘Feeding on Itself’ 0316

Greenland Ice Sheet Melts up to 1/3 Faster under Cloudy Skies 0116

New Discovery Shows Greenland Could Be Making Sea-Level Rise Even Worse 0116

Greenland Melt Prompts NASA Fears of Coastal Flooding 0815

Scientists Can Finally Explain Why Huge Lakes atop Greenland Are Vanishing 0615

Ice Cores Show 200-Year N-S Poles Climate Lag 0515

Antarctic Ice Shelves Melting 70% Faster 0315

Models of Greenland Ice Melting Could Be Way Off.  Florida Beware! 1214

Chain Reaction Shattered Huge Antarctic Ice Shelf 0813

Like Butter - Study Explains Surprising Acceleration of Greenland’s Inland Ice 0713

New Iceberg Theory Points to Risk of Rapid Disintegration, Fast Sea Level Rise 0713

Jury Still Out on Cause of Melting Ice Sheets 0713

Antarctic Ice Shelves Melting Mostly from Below 0613

Ice Sheets Can Change Fast 0912

Greenland Ice Melts in Spurts 0812

Warm Ocean Drives Antarctic Ice Loss 0412

Ocean Warming Is Melting Polar Sheets Even Faster 0711

Soot Outdoes CO2 in Melting Himalayan Ice 0311


Antarctica

     Antarctica holds about 90% of the ice on Earth, almost 10% in West Antarctica (including 1% in the Antarctic Peninsula) and some 80% in East Antarctica (in right half of circle below).  West Antarctica's ice, if melted, would raise sea level almost 6 meters (20 feet).  If all of East Antarctica's ice melted, it would raise sea level almost 60 meters (200 feet).  Until 40 million years ago, Antarctica had no ice and sea levels were far higher than now.

Antarctica Bedrock Topograhic Map

     Glaciation in Antarctica began 39 million years (MY) ago.  It was largely complete by 34 MY ago.  Antarctic ice has waxed and waned some since then, but has been generally similar to the amount today.

    In recent years, ice shelf breakup has concentrated on the Antarctic Peninsula (upper left).  But ice loss from retreating glaciers in West Antarctica (in left half of circle) has begun.

     
Roughly 2/3 of West Antarctica's ice is grounded below sea level.  But so is some 1/3 of East Antarctica’s.  That’s more square miles in the East than the West.

     Map by Paul V. Heinrich, data from BEDMAP Consortium (European Ice Sheet Modelling Initiative, Scientific Committee on Antarctic Research)

Here is an spectacular 4-minute VIDEO of a calving event for ice the area of Manhattan, but taller.


East Antarctica's Glaciers Are Stirring 1218

Land Rebounding under Antarctic Ice 0618

Antarctic Ice Loss Tripled in a Decade.  If That Continues, It’s Serious Trouble. 0618 - 2.3 trillion tonnes in 15 years

Mass Balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2017 - Shepherd 0618 - PDF

Mass Balance of the Antarctic Ice Sheet from 1992 to 2017 - Shepherd 0618 - Abstract

Global Warming Is Melting Antarctic Ice from Below 0518

'Extreme' Changes Underway in Some of Antarctica’s Biggest Glaciers 0418

An Alarming 10% of Antarctica’s Coastal Glaciers Are Now in Retreat 0418

Major Trend of More Snowfall Seen in Antarctica Could Counter Sea Level Rise 0118

Antarctic Iceberg Portends Big Glacier Retreat 1217

West Antarctica’s 2 Biggest Glaciers Accelerate Toward the Sea 1017

Study Suggests the Ocean Could Rise More, and Faster, than We Thought 1017

Satellites Spy Antarctic ‘Upside-Down Ice Canyon' 1017

Key Antarctic Glacier - Pine Island - Just Lost a Huge Piece of Ice 0917

Giant Iceberg Splits from Antarctic 0717 - a bit larger than Delaware, from Larsen C ice shelf on Antarctic Peninsula

Shells Record West Antarctic Glacier Retreat 0717

Antarctica's Ice-Free Areas to Increase up to 1/4 by 2100 - 0617

Scientists Stunned by Antarctic Rainfall and a Melt Area Bigger than Texas 0617

Thanks to Global Warming, Antarctica Is Beginning to Turn Green 0517

Larsen C Ice Shelf Crack Just Sprouted a New Branch 0517

Antarctica's Troublesome ‘Hairdryer Winds' 0417

Vast Rivers and Waterfalls Discovered across Antarctica 0417

Antarctica Just Shed a Manhattan-Sized Chunk of Ice 0217

Antarctic Past Points to Sea Level Threat 0117

Warm Ocean Water Is Melting the Biggest Glacier in East Antarctica 1216

Odd Rifts in Antarctic Ice Could Mean ‘Sayonara, Glacier’ 1116

What It Means for Sea Level When 2 Huge Antarctic Glaciers Are Unstable 1016

Undermined by Warm Water, West Antarctic Glacier Lost 1,607 Feet of Ice Thickness in under 10 Years 1016

Scientists May Have Solved Key Riddle about Antarctica.  It’s Bad News. 0916

Lengthening Crack Threatens to Cause an Antarctic Ice Shelf to Collapse 0816

Dazzling Blue Lakes Are Forming in Antarctica.  That Worries Scientists. 0816

These Elephant Seals Taught Scientists Why Antarctica Is Melting So Fast 0616 - Ocean warms ice from below.

Yet Another Part of Antarctica May Be in Trouble 0616 - by Bellinghausen Sea, to Pacific side of the Peninsula

Better Models of Antarctic Ice Collapse Show Much Faster Sea Level Rise 0416 - includes take 4 on DeConto study
      Note similarity of the study’s contours (below)  to the map of Antarctic bedrock above.
'Dire Prediction' on Melting Antarctic Ice Sheets and Rising Sea Levels 0416 - take 3 on DeConto-Pollard study
               if we continue current emissions rate                        if Paris committments are met & world warms only 2°C
  
Ice Melt Could Make Seas Rise 6 Feet by 2100 - 0316 - take 1 on DeConto-Pollard study.  40+ feet by 2500 possible

Climate Forecasts Underestimate Sea-Level-Rise Impact of Antarctic Thaw 0316 - take 2.  50+ feet by 2500 possible

Antarctic Model Raises Prospect of Unstoppable Ice Collapse 0316 - take 3.  50+ feet by 2500 possible

James Hansen Warns of Much Worse than Expected Sea Level Rise 0316 - take 2 on study above in Ice Dynamics

We Had All Better Hope These Scientists Are Wrong about Earth’s Future 0316 - take 1 on study above in Ice Dynamics

Antarctica Could Be Much More Vulnerable to Melting than We Thought 0216

Warmer Seas Speed Up Antarctic Ice Melt 0216

What the Earth Will Be Like in 10,000 years, according to Scientists 0216

Weakening Ice Shelves Raise Sea Level Rise Concerns 0216

Big Antarctic Ice Melt Scenarios This Century ‘Not Plausible' 1115

West Antarctic Ice Melt Could Raise Seas by 3 Meters 1115

Experts Dispute NASA Study Showing Antarctic Ice Gain 1115

Net Gains for Antarctic Ice Sheets – NASA 1015

Trouble as Antarctica's Glaciers Are Undermined by Warm Water 1015

Antarctic Ice Shelves Collapse Would Bring 1,000s of Years of Sea-Level Rise 1015

Why Scientists Are So Worried about Antarctica’s Ice Shelves 1015

Worst-Case Scenario for Sea Level Rise- No More New York, Berlin or Shanghai 0915

Climate Change and the Fate of Antarctica 0915

Study Predicts All Antarctic Ice to Melt if All Fossil Fuels Are Burned 0915

5 Trillion Tons of Ice Lost Since 2002 - 0915             

Scientists Are Still Trying to Figure Out How Fast We Could Lose West Antarctica 0815

New Antarctic Research Increases Sea Level Rise Estimates 0815

Antarctic Glaciers Are Thinning So Fast, It's Like a Switch Was Flipped 0515

Antarctic Peninsula in ‘Dramatic' Ice Loss 0515

Antarctica's Growing Sea Ice Is Restricting Access to Research Stations 0515

10,000-Year-Old Antarctic Ice Shelf Will Disappear by 2020 - NASA 0515

Larsen C Ice Shelf, the Size of Scotland, Could Be at ‘Imminent Risk’ 0515

Antarctic Ice Shelves Melting 70% Faster 0315

Antarctic Ice Shelf Thinning Speeds Up 0315

East Antarctic Totten Glacier (Ice for 11 Feet SLR) Melts from Warm Seas Beneath

Antarctica's Retreating Ice May Re-Shape Earth 0215

Texas-Sized East Antarctic Glacier Melting with Warmer Oceans 0115

Our Polar Regions Are Simply 'Melting Away.’  It's A Beautiful Disaster. 0115

Scientists Drill through 2,400 Feet of Antarctic Ice for Climate Clues 0115 - Muck & pebbles on seabed at bottom show glacier movement in West Antarctica.  The Whillan glacier base rests on 10 meters of ocean, not the ground.  This makes it vulnerable to ocean warming beneath it, which melts it from the bottom.

The Antarctic Ice Sheet Is a Sleeping Giant, Beginning to Stir 0115

Rescued Scientists Bring Back a Warning from the Antarctic 1214

Drought, Heat and Ice - 2015 Could Be Tipping Point on Climate 1214

Antarctic Peninsula Glacier Recession 'Unprecedented' 1214

Research Casts Alarming Light on Decline of West Antarctic Glaciers 1214 - This article partly overlaps the next one.

West Antarctic Region Sheds Mount Everest-Sized Amount of Ice Every 2 Years 1214

Underwater ‘Storms' May Hold Key to Melting Antarctic Ice 1114

Antarctic Sea Ice Hits Record High, While the Arctic's Keeps Melting 1014

Gravity Changes Show Antarctica Meltdown 1014

Melting Glaciers Make Antarctic Coastal Waters Rise 2 mm per Year Faster 0914

Antarctic Melt Could Raise Sea Levels Faster 0814

ESA's Cryosat Mission Sees Antarctic Ice Losses Double in 4 Years  0514

Ice Melt in Part of Antarctica ‘Appears Unstoppable,' NASA Says 0514

East Antarctica More at Risk Than Thought to Long-Term Thaw 0514

Pine Island Glacier's Retreat Irreversible 0114

Spy Satellite Data Reveal Antarctic Ice Vulnerability 0813

New Antarctic Ice Core Reveals Secrets of Climate Change 0813

East Antarctic Ice Sheet 'Vulnerable' to Temperature Changes 0813

Frozen Ice Sheet in East Antarctica Melted, 5.3-2.6 Million Years Ago 0713

Antarctic Flood Produces Ice Crater 0713 

Melting in Antarctica Worst in 1,000 Year Record 0413

West Antarctic Ice Sheet Warming Rate Is Twice Earlier Estimate 1212 

Sea Level to Rise Despite More Snow in East Antarctica 1212 

Less Ice Melt in Antarctica 1012 

Antarctica Warmth Unusual, Not Unprecedented 0812 

Valley Size of Grand Canyon Accelerates W Antarctic Ice Melt 0712 

East Antarctica May Be Losing Ice Mass 1109 

Large Antarctic Glacier Thinning Fast 0809 

W Antarctic Ice Collapse History 0509 

How Antarctic Ice Shelves Disintegrate - Wikipedia 0409 

Antarctic Peninsula Ice Shelf Disintegrating 0409 

W Antarctic Ice Sheet to Collapse Again 0309 

New Rifts in Antarctic Ice Shelf 1108

West Antarctic Glaciers Surge 0208 

West Antarctic Ice Melt Accelerates 0108 

Antarctic Ice Ebb & Flow Over Last 10 Million Years 0105 - PDF 

Rapid CO2 Decline Glaciated Antarctica 34 Mya 0103 - PDF


Greenland

Greenland holds about 10% of the world's ice.  If it all melts, sea level would rise ~ 6 meters (20 feet).

                Greenland Bedrock Topographic Map                       Created using ETOPO1 Global Relief Model bedrock version                                    

www.ngdc.noaa.gov/mgg/global/global.html       .


     Greenland ice growth began almost 10 million years ago and reached roughly current levels more than 2 million years ago.

     Over the past 2 million years, ice sheets repeatedly grew and shrank across Canada, the northern US, most of Siberia, and most of northern Europe.  We call these periods Ice Ages.  At their peak, these ice sheets held twice as much ice as Antarctica does today.  (See Hansen 0913 on Overviews page for a geologically recent history of sea level.)  From 20 to 8 thousand years ago (KYa), those ice sheets vanished, raising sea levels by 1 meter per century, including 1.5 meter per century from 15 to 8 KYa.  

     Some researchers (Robinson, Koenig) have made the case that current CO2 levels are incompatible with continued existence of the Greenland ice cap or sheet, especially once temperatures increase to those associated with past CO2 levels this high (~ 400 ppm).

     Perhaps 20% of Greenland's ice is grounded below sea level.


What Greenland's 'Unprecedented' Ice Loss Means for Earth 1218

Better Mapping of Greenland Ice Loss 0918

Greenland’s Biggest Fire Is a ‘Warning’ for Its Future 0418

Ice Cores Show Greenland’s Melting Is Unprecedented in at Least 4 Centuries 0318

Algae on Greenland Ice Sheet Significantly Hasten Its Melting 1217

As Greenland Melts, Where’s the Water Going? 1217

These Are the Melting Glaciers That Might Someday Drown Your City 1117 - Peterman, Jacobshavn, Zachariae

Mapping Greenland Has Produced Some Surprising - Worrying – Results 1017

'Unusual' Greenland Wildfires Right Now Are Linked to Peat 0817

Despite Summer Snow, Greenland Is Still Melting 0717

Wildfires Dumped a Huge Amount of Soot atop Greenland’s Ice Sheet 0617

So Much Water Pulsed thru a Melting Glacier, It Warped Earth’s Crust 0517 - 6.7 billion tons in 4 months

Troubling News about Greenland’s Most Enormous Glacier 0417 281 GT of ice loss annually.  Fjords extend far, far inland.

Data Are Now Coming In from NASA’s Study of Greenland’s Melting 0217

Greenland Ice Melt Could Push Atlantic Circulation to Collapse 0117

'The Arctic Is Unraveling,' Conclude Scientists after Latest Climate Report 1216

History Reveals Greenland Ice Might Melt Much Faster Than Believed 1216 - It was ice-free 25% of last 1.4 million years.

Greenland Is Melting from Above and Below.  Scientists Say They’re Connected. 1016

Greenland May Be Losing Ice Even Faster than We Thought 0916

Greenland Lost a Staggering 1 Trillion Tons of Ice in Just 4 Years 0716 - slight acceleration from the 4 years before

Deep-Blue Ponds and Streams Highlight Melting on Greenland Ice Sheet 0716

Greenland Was Hotter than New York City Last Week 0616

Record Greenland Melting Caused by Surprising Feedback Loop 0616 - Growing Arctic sea ice LOSS warms ice more.

Greenland Ice Sheet Melting Has Started Early 0416

Early Greenland Ice Sheet Melt Has Researchers Concerned 0416

Heat Wave in Greenland Triggers Record Early Start to Ice Melt Season 0416

Why Greenland Could Also Melt Faster than Expected 0416 - several processes, including warming sea water underneath

Bacteria Could Be Speeding Up the Darkening of Greenland's Ice 0316

James Hansen Warns of Much Worse than Expected Sea Level Rise 0316 - take 2 on study above in Ice Dynamics

We Had All Better Hope These Scientists Are Wrong about Earth’s Future 0316 - take 1 on study above in Ice Dynamics

Greenland’s Melting Is ‘Feeding on Itself’ 0316

What the Earth Will Be Like in 10,000 years, according to Scientists 0216

Greenland Ice Sheet Melts up to 1/3 Faster under Cloudy Skies 0116

New Discovery Shows Greenland Could Be Making Sea-Level Rise Even Worse 0116

Greenland Ice Sheet Is Shrinking at High Rate 1215   -                      take 2 on study

Greenland’s Staggering Amount of ice Loss Is Getting Worse 1215 - take 1 on study

Greenland Just Opened up a Major New Ice Floodgate into the Ocean 1115

5 Trillion Tons of Ice Lost Since 2002 - 0915

Greenland Melt Prompts NASA Fears of Coastal Flooding 0815

World's Fastest-Melting Glacier Loses Massive Chunk in 2 Days 0815

OMG… Greenland’s Ice Sheets Are Melting Fast.  Look Underneath. 0815

Medium-Large Earthquakes Are Shaking Greenland, as Icebergs Calve 0615

Scientists Can Finally Explain Why Huge Lakes atop Greenland Are Vanishing 0615

Our Polar Regions Are Simply 'Melting Away.’  It's a Beautiful Disaster. 0115

An Arctic Ice Cap’s Shockingly Rapid Slide into the Sea 0115 - Svalbard / Spitzbergen actually

Drought, Heat and Ice - 2015 Could Be Tipping Point on Climate 1214

Models of Greenland Ice Melting Could Be Way Off.  Florida Beware! 1214

Greenland’s Dark Snow May Start Global Warming Feedback Loop 0914

Greenland Ice Loss Doubles from Late 2000s - 0814

     At right is change in Greenland ice surface elevation, from January 2011 to January 2014.  from article above

Greenland Glaciers More Susceptible to Melt Than Thought 0514

Greenland Glacier Hits Record Speed 0214

Greenland “Mega Canyon” Sends Water to the Sea 0813

Why Greenland Melting Is Biggest Climate Disaster of All 0113

Arctic Wildfires Speed Melting of Greenland Ice 1212

Greenland Lost 200 Billion Ton of Ice per Year 2003-10 1112

Greenland Ice Sheet Cannot Survive Current CO2 Level 1012

Greenland Melting Breaks Record 4 Weeks Early 0812

Greenland Aug 2012 Ice Summary 0812

Greenland Lost 422 GT of Ice in 2011 0812

Greenland Ice Sheet Surface Melt Shoots Up to 97% 0712

      See 2 maps below.

Iceberg 2 x Manhattan, from Greenland 0712 

Data Sheds Light on Speed of Greenland Glaciers 0512 

Summary #1 - 1.6°C Warming Makes Greenland Ice Melt Away 0312 

Summary #2 - Greenland Ice Sheet Vulnerable to Less Warming Than Previously Thought 0312 

Summary #3 - Greenland Ice Melt May Soon Become Irreversible 0312 

Greenland Ice Unstable 1.6°C Above Pre-Industrial - Robinson 0312 - PDF 

Greenland Shed 100 Billions Tons of Ice in 2010 1211

Second Giant Ice Island Set to Break off Greenland 0911 

Accelerating Arctic Melt Raises Sea Level Rise Projections 0511

Speed of Greenland Ice Melt Sets New Record 0111 

Greenland Loses Ice Sheet 4 x Size of Manhattan 0810 

Greenland Rebound Accelerates 0510 

‘Dramatic’ Ice Melt in NW Greenland since 2005 Exceeds Projections 0310 

Greenland Losing 273 cu km Ice / Year 1109 

Greenland Ice Mass Loss 1958-2007 2008 - WEB

Greenland Melts Quicker 0206


Other Glaciers


               1970                      1980                        1990                        2000                        2010

In Mount Everest Region, World's Highest Glaciers Are Melting, Receding 1118

Scientists Warn of Lower Water Supply due to Melting Glaciers after 2060 - 1118

Dry Lakes and Dust Storms at Yukon Glaciers Are Warning for Planet 1018

New Zealand's Melting Glaciers 0818

Climate Change Is Melting the French Alps, Say Mountaineers 0818

100s of Arctic Glaciers Shrinking, Disappearing into ‘City of Icebergs’ 0718

Himalayan Glaciers Are Wasting Away, Threatening Mountain Communities 0518

As Glaciers Melt, Tourism Dries Up in Peru’s Cordillera Blanca 0118

In Peru’s Deserts, Melting Glaciers Are a Godsend (Until They’re Gone) 1117

Ganges under Threat from Climate Change 1017 - retreat of Gangtori glacier, Ganges headwaters

Limiting Global Warming to 1.5°C Could Save 2/3 of Asia’s Glacier Ice 0917

The Rockies' Largest Glaciers Are Melting with Little Fanfare 0917

Peru’s Flood of Problems 0817

World's “Highest" Village Runs Dry, as Warming Hits Himalayas 0817

Scientists Rescue Samples of Melting Bolivian Glacier for Posterity 0617

Going, Going ... Glacier National Park's Iconic Glaciers Are Melting Away 0517

To Save Shrinking Glaciers, Cover Them with Snow All Summer 0517

Climate Change Is Taking Big Bite Out of Alpine Glaciers 0417

Climate Climax in Nepal 0417

Climate Change is on Pace to Kill an Ice Age Remnant 0317

La Paz Adapts to a World without Water 0217 - Chacaltaya glacier “breathed its last” in 2009

As Arctic Warms, Canada's Glaciers Play Major Role in Sea Level Rise 0217 - esp. on islands in Arctic

Shrinking Mountain Glaciers Are ‘Categorical Evidence’ of Climate Change 1216

Bolivian Water Crisis as Glaciers Vanish 1116

Melting Glaciers in Bolivia Could Wash Away Towns 1016

How Air Pollution Is Causing the World’s ‘3rd Pole’ to Melt 0816

Crisis on High, in Tibet 0716

Retreating Glaciers a Sign of Alaska’s Major Meltdown 0716

As Glaciers Melt in Alaska, Landslides Follow 0716

95% of Glaciers on Tibetan Plateau Receded 0616

Climate Change Is Melting Everest’s Ice 0416

Rapid Melt Making Popular New Zealand Glaciers Too Dangerous to Hike 0316

El Niño Means Glaciers in the Andes Are Melting at Record Rates 0116

Chinese Glacier's Retreat Signals Trouble for Asian Water Supply 1215

Lakes Expanding 'Dangerously' in Everest Glacier 1115

Central Asia's Glaciers Are Quickly Shrinking 0815

Speed of Worldwide Glacier Retreat Is Unprecedented 0815

Alaska’s Glaciers Now Lose 75 Billion Tons of Ice per Year = 1/2 of Antarctic Loss 0615

Climate Change Could Shrink Mount Everest’s Glaciers by 70% - 0515

How Western Canada Glaciers Will Melt Away 0415

Goodbye, Glaciers? 0415

On Kilimanjaro - 'We Were Climbing Ice That Isn’t Going to Be There Next Week' 0115

Peru's Melting Glaciers a Deadly Threat, as Temperatures Rise 1214

Melting of Andes Glaciers Threatens Andean Countries 1214

Andes Glaciers, Ailing Giants Hit by Climate Change 1214 - some overlap with article above

Climate Change Threatens to Strip the Identity of Glacier National Park 1114

What Climate Change Means for a Land of Glaciers 1114 - North Cascades

Alaska in 2013 - Kenai’s Icefield Lost 28 Vertical Feet; Exit Glacier Retreated 187 Feet - 1014

Humans Seen as Biggest Force Behind Glacier Meltdown 0814

Nepal Clacier Change Analysis 0514 PDF, 100 pp

As Mountain Snow Fails and Glaciers Melt, Pakistan Faces Water Threats 0514

Global Warming Fragments Himalayan Glaciers- 29% Ice Loss in 30 Years 0514

Sentinel Satellite Spies Ice Cap Speed-Up 0514

Alaska's ‘Ice-Quake' Record Could Shake Up Climate Science 0514

Snowpack, Ice Cover Shrinking on Rocky Mountains, Everest 0513

Melting Mountain Glaciers Account for 1/3 of Sea Level Rise 0513 

Andes Tropical Glaciers Going Fast 0413 

1,600 Years of Ice in Andes Melted in 25 Years 0413 

Himalayan Glaciers Shrinking, Aided by Black Carbon 0313 

Glacier Meltwater Catastrophes Are Forming High in the Andes 0313 

Canadian Glaciers Face Big Losses 0313                                         below: Athabaska Glacier retreat over 86 years         

Massive Melting of Andes Glaciers 0113 

Melting in Peru's Andes 1112

Patagonian Glaciers Melt Rate Accelerates 0912

Himalayan Glaciers Grow in West, Shrink Elsewhere 0812 

World Glaciers to Shrink 40% More if Warming Stops Now 0412

Some Asian Glaciers Adding Mass 0412

French Glaciers in Retreat 1211 

China Glaciers in Drastic Retreat 1011 

Soot Outdoes CO2 Melting Himalayan Ice 0311 

Glaciers Largely Stable in Karakoram Range of Himalayas 0111 

Indonesian Glaciers Dying 0710 

Asia's Water Towers 0610

Uganda's Rwenzori Ice Cap Splits After Shrinking 0510 

US' Glacier National Park Loses 2 More Glaciers 0410 

Vanishing Glaciers Plague Bolivia 1209 

Are Himalayan Glaciers Retreating? 1109 

Kilimanjaro Snows Gone by 2022 1109 

Glaciers Melt Fastest in 5,000 Year Record 0308 

Baffin Ice Cut 50% in 50 Years 0208


Combined Regions

from IPCC 5 Science Assessment

The Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets under 1.5°C Global Warming 1118

Geo-Engineer Polar Glaciers to Slow Sea-Level Rise 0318

A Radical New Scheme to Prevent Catastrophic Sea-Level Rise 0118

Seas May Rise 8 Feet by 2100, Inundating Land That's Home to 236 Million 1217

Ice Apocalypse 1117 - summary by a leading ice scientist

These Are the Melting Glaciers That Might Someday Drown Your City 1117 - Peterman, Jacobshavn, Zachariae in Greenland.  Gravitational effect of ice removal yields differential sea level rise around the world.

James Hansen Warns of Much Worse than Expected Sea Level Rise 0316 - take 2 on study below

We Had All Better Hope These Scientists Are Wrong about Earth’s Future 0316 - take 1 on study below

Ice Melt, Sea Level Rise and Superstorms: Evidence from Paleoclimate Data, Climate Modeling, and Modern Observations that 2°C Global Warming is Dangerous - Hansen et al. 0316  - PDF, 20 pp. - abridgement of the peer-reviewed publication
     Cold icemelt from Antarctica spreads out along the ocean surface.  That prevents the vertical mixing (warmer water to the top) there that has driven the great ocean circulation.  In Antarctica, the warmer water below the ice eats away at placiers from underneath.  Cold icemelt from Greenland leads to shutdown of the Atlantic overturning circulation.
     Ice losses from Greenland and Antartica grow, modelled as exponentially, with doubling times of 10, 20, or 40 years.  Sea level rises non-linearly, 5-9 meters over 50 to 150 years.  This is simlar to what happened 120,000 years ago, when sea levels rose from 3-4 meters higher than today to about 9 meters higher, including 2-3 meters within several decades.  (For perspective, the sea level range (maximum - minimum) over the recent ice ages was about 125 meters.)

Melting Glaciers Blamed for Subtle Slowing of Earth's Rotation 1215

5 Trillion Tons of Ice Lost Since 2002 - 0915

Sea-Level Rise Accelerating, as Earth's Ice Sheets Melt  0515

Where Has All the Ice Gone? 0313

Polar Ice Mass Change 1112 

Polar Ice Mass Loss Reconciled - Shepherd, Ivins 1112 - PDF - excerpts below

                                            Annual Contributions

2013 Arctic Report Card 1213 - Summary includes several topical maps.  The full report is available below.

Climate Downgrade- Arctic Warming 1112

NASA Satellites Reveal Extent of Global Ice Melt 0812

Polar Ice Loss Quickens 0311

Ice Melt Accelerating 1209 

Drastic Changes in Arctic 1009 

Ice Sheet Meltdown Accelerates 0909 

2+ Trillion Tons of Ice Melted Since 2003 1208 

Arctic & Greenland Ice Melt Fast 1207 

Polar Glaciers Accelerate 0306 

Ice Mass Balance Change - Antarctica + Greenland 0306


Sea Ice

from U of Washington, by Wipneus, using PIOMAS model - area plus thickness soundings by submarines

     Sea ice loss has been much more pronounced in the Arctic than the Antarctic (till 2017), which has actually gained a little in area (but probably not in volume).

The Arctic Ocean Has Lost 95% of Its Oldest Ice, a Sign of What’s to Come 1218

With Thick Ice Gone, Arctic Sea Ice Changes More Slowly 1018

Warm Water under Arctic Ice Is a ‘Ticking Time Bomb’ 0818

Climate Change Cuts Shipping Route from China to Europe by 5,000 Miles 0818

Arctic’s Strongest Sea Ice Breaks Up for 1st Time on Record 0818

Ice-Free Arctic Projections under the Paris Agreement 0618

In the Arctic, the Old Ice Is Disappearing 0518

Western Alaska Sea Ice at Far the Lowest Extent since 1850 - 0418

Arctic Sea Ice Hits Record Lows off Alaska 1117

Return of ‘Ocean Chimney' the Size of Tasmania Puzzles Antarctic Scientists 1017

'Attacked from 2 Sides'- Antarctic Sea Ice Hits Another Record Low 0917

At 2017 Minimum, Scientists Ask - Is Arctic Entering the Thin Ice Age? 0917

1st Tanker Crosses Arctic Ocean without Ice Breaker 0817

Arctic Voyage Finds Global Warming Impact on Ice, Animals 0817

Speedier Sea Ice in Warming Arctic Could Spread Pollution Farther 0717

Alaska's Sea Ice Is Melting Unusually Early, 'Another Sign Arctic Is Unraveling' 0517

The Arctic as It Is Known Today Is Almost Certainly Gone 0417

The Arctic Is Warm Again Because of Course It Is 0317 Multi-year ice is down from 20% to 4% since 1985.

Ice at Both Poles Shrinks to Record Lows 0317

‘Airpocalypse’ Smog Events in China Linked to Melting Ice Cap 0317

Arctic Ice Loss Driven by Natural Swings, Not Just Humans 0317

Arctic Sea ice May Vanish, Even if World Achieves Climate Goal 0317

Why Has Antarctic Ice Set an Unexpected Record Low? 0317

1979 Arctic Model Predicted Current Sea Ice Demise, Holds Lessons for Future 0217 - ice-free in summer by mid-century

Antarctic Sea Ice Is No Longer the Darling of Climate Doubters 0217

Sea Ice around Antarctica Hits Record Low 0217

New Studies Show Rex Tillerson Is Wrong about Climate Risks 0117

Incredibly Thin Arctic Sea Ice Shocks Researchers 1216

'The Arctic Is Unraveling,' Conclude Scientists after Latest Climate Report 1216

This Is Not Normal, People - Arctic and Antarctic Hit Record Low Sea Ice 1216

Arctic Sea Ice Struggles to Build Volume 1116 fairly thick, but extent is lowest for date - for several weeks now

Arctic Sea Ice Melt Could Trigger Uncontrollable Climate Change Globally 1116

Amid Higher Global Temperatures, Sea Ice at Record Lows at Both Poles 1116

Irregular Arctic Climate Reduces Sea Ice to Another Record Low 1016

Arctic Sea Ice Shrinks to 2nd Lowest Level Ever Recorded 0916

For the Melting Arctic, Fuzzy Forecasts Are the Best We Can Do 0916

Open Water near North Pole Is a Sign of a Rapidly Warming Arctic 0916

Despite Major Melt, Arctic Sea Ice Will Miss Record Low 0816

Southern Ocean Is Getting Less Salty.  What That Means for the Rest of Earth 0816

‘Next Year or the Year After, the Arctic Will Be Free of Ice’ 0816 - clear sailing across the North Pole, some ice clings to north shore of Greenland

Cruel Summer - Floods, Fires and Heat 0816 - summary of Arctic sea ice in summer 2016.  In late August 2016, Artic sea ice was 2nd lowest area on record.

Historical Data Shows Arctic Melt of Last 2 Decades Is 'Unprecedented' 0816

2015 Set Frenzy of Climate Records 0816

Arctic Sea Ice Crashes to Record Low for June 0716

Amid Melting Arctic Ice, Kerry Sees Looming Climate Catastrophe 0616

Melt Ponds Suggest No Arctic Sea-Ice Record This Year 0616

Arctic Sea Ice Breaks May Record ... by a Lot 0616

Fractures Seen in Rapidly Melting Arctic Sea Ice, and It's Only May 0516

Arctic Sea Ice Growth Stunted Again 0416

Arctic Sea Ice Extent Breaks Record Low for Winter 0316

Northwest Passage Foiled Centuries of Explorers, but Now Open to Cruise Liners 0316

The Arctic Just Set an Ominous New Record 0316

Arctic Warming Is Possibly Catastrophic for Planet, Climate Scientist Warns 0216

Scientists Are Floored by What’s Happening in the Arctic Right Now 0216

Unusually Warm Arctic Winter Yields Record Low Ice Extent for January 0216

As “Blue Arctic’ Expands with Warming, an Icebreaker Finds No Ice to Break 0116

Antarctic Icebergs Have Surprise Role in Slowing Warming 0116

Record High Arctic Temperatures in 2015 Having ‘Profound Effects' on Region 1215

Ice, Earth's Climate Moderator, Will Change the Arctic and Earth, When It Leaves 1115

Heat Rising from the Depths of the Arctic ‘Could Accelerate Ice Melt' 0915

Summer Sea Ice Likely to Drop to 3rd, Even 2nd, Lowest on Record 0915

Arctic Ice Grew by 1/3 after Cool Summer in 2013 - 0715

Rapid Arctic Ice Loss Linked to Extreme Weather Changes in Europe and US 0615

Young Arctic Ice Creates New Climate-Driven Era 0515

Arctic Sea Ice Extent Hits Record Low for Winter 0315

Arctic Sea Ice Dwindling Toward Record Winter Low 0315

World’s Sea Ice Still Declining, Despite Antarctica’s Gains 0215

Perennial Arctic Sea Ice Continues to Shrink 0115

Ice-Free Arctic Could Be Just 6 Years Away 1214

Why is Antarctic Ice Growing?  Scientist Has an Answer 1214

Antarctic Autonomous Sub Gauges Sea Ice Thickness 1114

Antarctic Sea Ice Hits Record High, While the Arctic's Keeps Melting 1014

Melting Arctic Ice Link to Extreme Weather Explored 1014

Reflecting on the Arctic Sea Ice Meeting at the Royal Society 0914

Melt Ponds Successfully Forecast Arctic Sea-Ice Extent 0914

Arctic Sea Ice Melts to 6th-Lowest Level on Record 0914

Antarctic Ice Should Set Record, but Arctic Sea Ice Dwindles 0914

Does Antarctic Sea Ice Growth Negate Climate Change?  Scientists Say No 0814

Snowpack Atop Arctic Sea Ice Has Dwindled Since 1950s - 0814

Satellite Record Error May Have Overestimated Antarctic Sea Ice Expansion 0814

Ocean Waves Influence Polar Ice Extent 0514

Climate Change Not Fully to Blame for Melting Sea Ice 0514

Warming from Arctic Sea Ice Melting Is More Dramatic than Thought 0214

Arctic Report Card - NOAA 1213 - PDF
Vegetation Change (-25% to +25%), 2012 vs 1982  
            Sea Surface Change (-11° to +11°F), 2013 vs 1982-2006 Mean


     Ice
extent includes any areas (satellite photo pixel style) that are at least 15% ice covered on that date.  In contrast, area translates 15% ice covered to 15% area.  Area is less than extent.



           1970                 1980                 1990                 2000                2010


As Sea Ice Shrinks, Arctic Shipping Options Expand 1213

ESA's Cryosat Sees Arctic Sea-Ice Volume Bounce Back 1213

ESA's Cryosat Mission Observes Continuing Arctic Winter Ice Decline 0913

Arctic May Be Ice-Free by 2058 0713

Large Fractures Spotted in Vulnerable Arctic Sea Ice 0313

Cryosat Spots Big Arctic Sea Ice Decline 0213 

Arctic Icepack Minimum Volume, by Year 0113

Arctic Ice Melt So Far Like 20 Years of CO2 Emissions 0912

Arctic Tipping Point 0812

Arctic Sea Ice Shrinks to Smallest Area on Record 0812

Arctic Sea Ice Reaches Record Low 0812

Arctic Ice Area 2nd Lowest, Volume Lowest 0911 

Arctic Ice Levels Hit Historic Low 0911

Albedo Effect of Retreating Arctic Sea Ice - Hudson 0811 - PDF    Albedo warming effect of complete Arctic Ocean ice loss is ~1/4 of the rise since 1750 from added GHGs.  ~15% of that ice albedo warming effect has already occurred.

Cryosat Mission Delivers First Arctic Sea-Ice Thickness Map 0611

Arctic Sea Ice Volume 091510

Arctic Ocean Ice Thinnest to Date 0610

Ice Volume 1979-2009 0410 - GRAPH 

Arctic Sea Ice Far More Fragile 1109 

Multi-Year Arctic Ice Gone 1109 

Arctic Summer Sea Ice to Vanish in 10-20 Years 1009 

Arctic Sea Ice Now More Thin Than Thick 0709 

Pacific Air Enters, Warms Arctic 1208

Arctic Sea Ice Volume at Record Low 1008

Thick Old Arctic Ice Melting 0308 

Northwest Passage Opens 0907 

Arctic Ice Melts Faster 0507 

Arctic Sea Ice Thickness Change 0206 - PDF



                                                                            1970                  1980                  1990                  2000                   2010

Snow & Ice

                     1970                 1980                 1990                  2000                 2010

—————————————————————

     As shown above, mean annual northern hemisphere snow cover is 9.9 million square miles, or 25.6 million square kilometers   The minimum is in August and the maximum in January.



Projection, from IPCC 5th Climate Assessment, Science Summary

            1980          2000           2020           2040          2060           2080          2100

When Mountains Fall into the Sea 0518

Mountain Snowpack Shrinks to 66% of Normal, Feds Sound Drought Alarm 0418

Snowpack Has Drastically Declined in the West This Century 0318

It's Not Just High Temps Messing with Snow—It's Dust 0218

Is California's Drought Returning?  Snowpack Nears 2015's Historic Lows 0218

Snowpack Near Record Lows Spells Trouble for Western Water Supplies 0118

Major Trend of More Snowfall Seen in Antarctica Could Counter Sea Level Rise 0118

How Climate Change Is Impacting the American West Right Now 1217

Western Water Crunch Has Climate Change Fingerprints 0417

Thick Ice Formations in Arctic Rivers Are Melting Earlier in Summer 0417

The World’s Snowiest Place Is Starting to Melt 0417

As Climate Warms, Sierra Snowpack, CA’s #1 Water Source, Gets Less Reliable 0317

Peculiar Tie between Warm Climate, Slow Snowmelt 0217 - Snowmelt starts earlier in year, when sun angle is lower.

Despite Gloomy California Snowpack Survey, State Water Officials Are Optimistic 0117

In the Polar Bear Capital of the World, the Snow Has Gone 1216

NH Snow Cover, Forcing & Feedbacks, as Function of Temperature - Chen et al. 0716 PDF
     
[from abstract] "The anomalies in snow cover resulted in a weakened snow radiative forcing of 0.12 (±0.003) W m−2 and feedback of 0.21 (±0.005) W m−2 K−1, in melting season, over the NH, from 1982 to 2013."

Unabated Global Warming Threatens West's Snowpack, Water Supply 0616

Western U.S. Snowpack Melting At Record Speed 0516

Sierra Nevada Snow Won’t End California’s Thirst 0416

Meltdown - More Rain, Less Snow as the World Warms 0416

US East Coast Snowstorms Linked to Slowdown of Atlantic Current 0116

In Canada's Far North, Warm Weather Threatens Vital Ice Roads 1215

Dry, Warm Winter Leaves Western U.S. Snowpack at Record Low Levels 0415

Sierra Nevada Snowpack Hits Historic Low 0315 - Snows return in December 2015.

As Ice Turns to Slush, Experts Foresee End to Outdoor Hockey in Canada 0315

What a Record-Low Snowpack Means For Summer In The Northwest 0315

Scientists See Shrinking California Snowpack as a Harbinger 0115

Snowiest Decade in 50 Years?   Compare Winter Snow Cover to Spring Lack 0115

Global Warming Could Make Blizzards Worse 0115

Great Lakes Ice Breaking All the Rules 1214

When the Snows Fail 0914

There's a Big Leak In America's Water Tower 0814

Water Goes ‘Missing' with Snow Loss 0514

Alaska's Arctic Icy Lakes Lose Thickness 0214

Climate Change Threat to Australia’s $1.8 Billion Snow Industry 1013

Snow and Arctic Sea Ice Extent Plummet Suddenly, as Globe Bakes 0713

Northern Late Snow Cover Down Since 1980 0110

by Gene Fry 2018