Global Warming - So What?

A Library about Climate Change


     Below are files - articles mostly - about water, arranged in 6 major groups: Oceans, Groundwater, Hurricanes, Lakes, Rivers, and Air.  Articles about ice occupy a separate page.

     Before the library of articles is introductory material - (1) biologically active areas of the ocean, (2) fresh water USE, (3) historically "recent" precipitation, and projected future precipitation (4) worldwide and (5) for the USA. 

     Month and year follow each article's name.  PDF files are so marked, after month and date, some with authors noted.  Within sections, more recent files appear above older files.

    Diagrams are generally immediately below the summary articles from which they were taken.

     Photosynthesis in algae (plankton) is the foundation of the ocean's food web and the source of much of our air's oxygen.  Below are maps with some estimates of how much oceanic chlorophyll is where.
     In the 1st map, blue is the lowest concentration, red the highest.  The 2nd & 3rd (black & white) maps show concentrations averaged over 1978-86, in mg of chlorophyll per cubic meter of seawater for the Pacific Ocean.  The left map is for summer (JJA in North, DJF in South), the right one for winter.


     Note the Pacific's biological deserts at low latitudes, especially in summer, and the high productivity along the northern coasts.  The color graph above shows a similar story for the Atlantic and Indian Oceans, except off the coasts of Argentina, western south Africa, Arabia, Indonesia, and New Guinea.  In the top map, note the hotspots at the mouths of the Amazon, Paraná, Congo, St. Lawrence, Danube, Yellow, Amur, and Yukon Rivers.

     To summarize, biological activity in the ocean is highest (1) in cold water, (2) near coasts, and (3) near river mouths.

Water Resources Fact Sheet 0714

                            US Fresh Water Use                                includes surface & underground water.

from draft 2013 US National Climate Assessment.
     From this graph, total US use in 2005 was ~445 GigaTonnes (445 cu km).  Consumptive use was ~132.  That's ~1,500 cubic meters per person per year (1,125 gallons per person per day).

     Of that, household hot water use was 20-25 gallons per person and household cold water use a bit more.
     The big users were agriculure and cooling power plants fired by coal, gas, and uranium.  Thermal power plants accounted for 41% of fresh water use, while agriculture acounted for 40% (37% for irrigation).  Industry and mining accounted for 6%.  (Thermal power plants also used 58 billion gallons per day of salt water for cooling, 40% as much as the fresh water they used.)


Warming Intensifies Water Cycle, IPCC Warns, for More Intense Storms & Floods 0821

Water Resources to Become Less Predictable with Climate Change 0722 - With warming, more preipitatuion falls as rain ande less as snow.  Also, snow melts earlier in the spring, leaving less or none for summer.

Why Climate Change Matters - Water 0516

California Water Conservation Saved Energy, Cut Greenhouse Gases 0616

Humans Are Using Up Far More of Earth’s Water than Previously Thought 1215

Acid Ocean - Hot & Breathless - UNESCO 1113 - PDF, 26 pp

Global Majority Faces Water Shortages within 2 Generations 0513

World Faces Water Crisis, as Global Warming Upsets Delicate Balance 0306


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Recent Precipitation

World Map % of Normal Precipitaion, 0823 vs 1961-90

Precipitation Trends, 1950-2008 (from Dai) 

Precip over Land 1961-2012

Precip over Ocean 1961-2012

With Climate Change, Smaller Storms Are Growing More Fearsome, More Often 0923

Record New York City Rain Sent Deadly Floods, Overwhelming Streets, Subways 0923

Why Rain Is Getting Fiercer on a Warming Planet 0923

5,200+ Dead and 10,000 Missing after Unprecedented Flash Floods in Libya 0923

Hong Kong Paralyzed by Flash Flooding after Heaviest Rainfall on Record 0923 - 20 inches (500 mm) in 24 hours

What Caused Tropical Storm Hilary's Record-Breaking Rainfall 0823

Beijing’s Deadly Storms Brought Heaviest Rainfall on Record 0823

‘Biblical Proportions’ - 3 Months’ Worth of Rainfall Floods Nova Scotia 0723

S. Korea Downpour Leaves 40 Dead, So President Yoon Visits Damaged Areas 0723

2 Weeks of Record Monsoon Rains Have Killed over 100 People in North India 0723

Heavy Rainfall and Flooding Hit US Northeast 0723

Wettest New Delhi July Day in 41 Years Triggers Deadly Floods in North India 0723

Extreme Floods Are Occurring Way More Often than US Federal Data Suggests 0623

Heavy Rains Threaten China’s Wheat Supply for Buns and Noodles 0523

Congo Flood Survivors Mourn Lost Relatives as Death Toll Rises above 400 - 0523

Fort Lauderdale, Florida Floods after Historic 1-in-1000 Year Rainfall Event 0423 - 14 to 20 inches in  24 hours

Flooding and Landslides Kill Dozens in Brazil’s São Paulo State 0223

Floods Devastate Philippines, Fuel Concerns over Extreme Weather 0123

How Climate Change Will Make Atmospheric Rivers Even Worse 0123

California Recovering from Deadly Storms, with Rainfall Totals 400-600% above Average, with More Rain on the Way 0123

California Is Being Inundated with Rain. Will It Ease the Drought? 0123

Northern California Sees Historic Deluge, as Atmospheric River Slams State 0123

At Least 141 Die in Congo as Floods and Landslides Hit Capital 1222

Climate Change Is Bringing More Intense Rains to U.S. 1022

Nigeria Battles Worst Floods in Years; 300 Killed in 2022 - 0922

China's Drought-Hit Areas Get Rain, Bringing Flood Risks 0822

1/3 of Pakistan Could Soon Be under Water 0822

Pakistan Declares Floods a ‘Climate Catastrophe’ as Death Toll Tops 1,000 - 0822

Five 1,000-Year Rain Events Have Struck the U.S. in 5 Weeks.  Why? 0822 - Once in 1,000 Years odds are in a STABLE climate, based on histroical weather records.  The climate is very far from stable and history is no longer a good guide to the future.

Dallas Area Hit by 1-in-1,000-Year Flood 0822

A ‘Mega-Flood’ in California Could Drop 100 inches of Rain 0822

Climate Crisis Is Fueling the Barrage in America’s Summer of Floods 0822

Seoul Sees “2 Months” of Rain in Half a Day, Killing at Least 8 - 0822

Flash Floods Kill 550 in Pakistan, in Heaviest Rains in Decades 0822

After Unprecedented Heat Waves, Monsoon Rains and the Worst Floods in over a Century Devastate South Asia 0822

Water Resources to Become Less Predictable with Climate Change 0722

How Two 1-in-1,000 Year Rain Events Hit the U.S. in 2 Days 0722

Flash Floods Swamp St. Louis Area, Breaking a Century-Old Rain Record 0722

Extreme Rainfall Will Be Worse, More Frequent than We Thought 0722

Climate Change Is a Factor in 'Unprecedented' South Asia Floods 0622

Atmospheric River That Ravaged Yellowstone Is Part of Climate Change Pattern 0622

Millions Displaced and Dozens Dead in Flooding in India and Bangladesh 0522

Rains Drive Biggest South African Locust Infestation in Decades 0422

Extreme Rainfall Hits New Zealand and Brazil 0322

Climate Change Is Intensifying Earth’s Water Cycle at Twice the Predicted Rate 0222

Covid Shutdown Linked to Record Rainfall in China 0222 - Less coal burned, so less cooling sulfate aerosols.

South Africa’s Heaviest Rain on Record Causes Destructive Floods 0122

Excessively Wet Year in Eastern U.S. Shows Climate Change Fingerprints 1221

Pacific Storm Whips Hawaii with Rain and Snow, Causing Floods 1221

Ever Rainy Seattle Breaks Its Fall Rain Record, after Summer of Extreme Heat 1221

Record Rainfall Prompts Evacuations in B.C. and US Northwest 1121

Atmospheric River Unleashes Record-Setting Rain, Flooding in California 1021 - 4, 5, and 6 inches in 24 hours

     Below is an interesting diagram about flying rivers, probably also known as atmospheric rivers.  I don’t know the source.

With a Warming Climate, Coastal Fog Around the World Is Declining 1021 - Not just California coastal redwoods, but Atacama and Namib Deserts. 

Deluge in Northwest Italy Sets European Record - 29 Inches in 12 Hours 1021

Climate Change’s ‘Fingerprint’ Seen in Ida Flooding 0921

New York City Region's Historic Floods Send Deadly Climate Change Lesson 0921 - 3.15 inches of rain in 1 hour in Central Park and 3.24 inches at Newark airport.  8.41 inches in 24 hours at Newark.

A 2° Difference - Climate Change Leading to More Extreme Rain Events 0821

Tennessee Floods Show Pressing Climate Danger across USA - Walls of Water 0821

Climate Change Made Heavy Rains in Europe, for German Floods, More Likely 0821

Is It Raining Harder?  Here's What These LSU Researchers Found. 0821

Record Low Rain Year in California, Arizona, Utah, Nevada 2nd, New Mexico 3rd - 0621

8 Inches in 1 Hour - How a Deadly Downpour Flooded Zhengzhou, China 0721 - 24 inches in 24 hours!  Annual average there is 25.4 inches.

Why It Won't Stop Raining in the New Orleans Area 0721 - The warmer air holds more water.  More rain overtaxes the pumps.

Human Activity Influencing Global Rainfall 0721

Global Warming’s Extreme Rains Threaten Hawaii’s Coral Reefs 0421

Global Warming Is Intensifying Extreme Rainstorms over North America 0620

Chicago Breaks May Rainfall Record for 3rd Year in a Row 0520

Climate Concerns Grow amid UK’s Wettest February on Record 0320

Flash Floods in Indonesia Leave 100s of 1,000s Homeless 0120

Global Heating Is Supercharging the Indian Ocean Climate System 1119

As the Monsoon and Climate Shift, India Faces Worsening Floods 0919

3rd Round of Flooding in 2019 Likely along Missouri River 0919

May Was the 2nd-Wettest Month in the U.S. since 1895 - 0619

Climate Change Fills Hurricanes with More Rain, Analysis Shows 0719

Wettest 12 Months in US Record Left It Drought-Free.  But Flooding Is Rampant 0519


India's Devastating Rains Match Climate Change Forecasts 0818

Japan’s Death Toll from Record Rain Rises as PM Warns of 'Race against Time’ 0718

Immense Rains Are Causing More Flash Flooding, and It’s Getting Worse 0618

5,000-Mile-Long River in the Sky Brings Heavy Rain & Snow to Pacific Northwest 1017

Houston Fears Catastrophic Flooding from Climate Change - 'It's Not If, It's When.’ 0617

Extreme Precipitation Events Have Risen Sharply in Northeast U.S. Since 1996 - 0517

Rising Waters Threaten China’s Rising Cities 0417

Global Warming Is Increasing Rainfall Rates 0317

California Levee System Battered by Record Rainfall from 'Atmospheric River' 0217

Louisiana Flood of 2016 Resulted from '1,000-Year' Rain in 2 Days 0816

Climate Change Warming Asian Waters, Altering Monsoon 0716

Flooding In Europe.  Texas Suffers 500-Year Flood for 2nd Year in a Row. 0616

Sierra Nevada Snow Won’t End California’s Thirst 0416

Meltdown - More Rain, Less Snow as the World Warms 0416

Yukon to Feel Impacts of Climate Change 0216

Downpours over Land Have Slowed Sea Level Rise 0216

December 2015 Was the Wettest Month Ever Recorded in UK 0116 - also hottest.
Full year was 2nd hottest, 6th wettest.

Floods of Biblical Proportions Leave British Cities and Villages under Water 1215

What Historic South Carolina Floods Can, & Can’t, Tell Us about Climate Change 1015

Heavier Rains Mean More Toxic Blooms for Lake Erie 0715

Torrential Rains Increasing in Warming World 0715

Warming Indian Ocean Weakens India’s Monsoon 0615        10-20% from 1901 to 2012, from the south of Pakistan
     to Bangladesh, especially in central India: the Ganges-Brahmaputra basins & Himalayan foothills

Flooding Risk Rises with Global Warming 0615

Rhode Island’s Annual Precipitation Rose by a Foot in 100 Years 0515

Tropical Rainfall on the Rise, as Big Storm Events Increase 0315

Climate Change in Minnesota - More Heat, More Big Storms 0215

Higher Pacific Temperatures Bring Monsoons to Southland 0814

How Australia's Big Wet Befuddled Scientists 0813

Rain - Sign of the Times in Philadelphia? 0613

Record Rain in Argentina Is Sign of Things to Come 0413

Heavier Rainfall in Midwest from Warming 0313

Intense Rains in US Midwest Doubled Since 1960 - 0512

Earth's Water Cycle is Changing Rapidly 1010

When It Rains, It Pours 1207 - PDF, 48 pp

Future Precipitation

 (from US National Climate Assessment)               World             (from US National Climate Assessment)
2071-2099 Average, Less 1971-2000 Average - for 2 RCPs

Wet Gets Wetter, Dry Gets Drier

     Also, areas toward the poles get wetter, as water and ice there warm, increasing evaporation.

Future World Precipitation ∆

also High Emissions Pathway
(Cross-hatching means high agreement among the models used.)

Climate Change May Reduce Soil’s Ability to Absorb Water – a Key Store of CO2 - 0919 - more root mass, fewer soil pores

Why Fresh Water Shortages Will Cause the Next Great Global Crisis 0315

Tropical Deforestation Could Disrupt Rainfall Globally 1214

Intense Thunderstorms More Likely to Batter a Warming World 0613

Earth's Water Cycle is Changing Rapidly 1010


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High Emission Pathway (RCP 8.5)

     The Figures below, about US precipitation observed, are from the draft 2013 US National Climate Assessment.

% change for 1991-2011 average, compared to 1901-60 average

     These are changes in the amount of precipitation falling in very heavy events (the heaviest 1% of all daily events) from 1958 to 2011 for each region.

     The 4 seasonal maps just below are for a high emissions case.  The 4 farther below are for a low emissions case.

Monsoon Storms to Recharge Southwest Groundwater May Become Rarer 0918

Rising Seas, Storm Surge, Rain Raise Severe Flooding Risk in Biggest US Cities 0715

Across the U.S., Heaviest Downpours on the Rise 0515

Rhode Island’s Annual Precipitation Rose by a Foot in 100 Years 0515

Sierra Nevada Snowpack Hits Historic Low 0315

Climate Change in Minnesota - More Heat, More Big Storms 0215

Higher Pacific Temperatures Bring Monsoons to Southland 0814

Rain - Sign of the Times in Philadelphia? 0613

Megastorms Could Drown Much of California (More Often) 1112

Hawaii Will Get Less Rain Due To Global Warming 0413

Earth's Water Cycle is Changing Rapidly 1010

US 20-Year Rain & Heat Events to Become 8- & 3-Year Events 0608

When It Rains, It Pours 1207 - PDF, 48 pp


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Oceans - Heat Gain

Why Our Oceans Being the Warmest in Recorded History Is So Concerning 0823
     Marine life struggles with heat, its resulting oxygen loss, and acidification.  Coral is especially hard hit.  It also, via the warming-melting effects on Greenland and Antarctic ice, slows down Atlantic Ocean circulation, especially the AMOC and Gulf Stream.  They may collapse by mid-century, slowly and possibly as soon as 2025.  The warming also melts sea ice, a major feedback that further accelerates global warming.

Global Ocean Temperatures Soared to a Record High This Week 0823

The Atlantification of the Arctic Ocean Is Underway 0623

The World’s Oceans Shattered Heat Records in April and May 0623

North Atlantic Temperature Anomaly Sparks Concern among Climate Scientists 0623

Arctic Climate Modeling Too Conservative, Says New Research 0323

This Extraordinary Marine Heat Wave Could Threaten Antarctica’s Ice Shelves 0223

What Sub-Arctic Seas Influencing the Arctic Ocean Says about Climate Change 0720

Deep Ocean Will Be Warming Rapidly by 2050, Even if Global Emissions Decline 0520

Inside Australia's Climate Emergency - Tasmania’s Dead Sea 0220

An Ocean of Evidence on Warming Is Our Cue to Take Action - Now 0119

Warm Water under Arctic Ice Is a ‘Ticking Time Bomb’ 0818

Climate Change Has Doubled the Frequency of Ocean Heat Waves 0818

Antarctic Ocean Discovery Warns of Faster Global Warming 0618

'Concerning' - Marine Heat Waves Increasing, Especially near Australia 0418


Oceans Are Warming Rapidly, New Study Confirms 0617

Climate Change Is Literally Turning the Arctic Ocean Upside Down 0417 - warm salty water below, fresh icy water above

The Arctic Is Warm Again Because of Course It Is 0317

Open Water near North Pole Is a Sign of a Rapidly Warming Arctic 0916

Soaring Ocean Temperature Is ‘Greatest Hidden Challenge of Our Generation' 0916

Southern Ocean Is Getting Less Salty.  What That Means for the Rest of Earth 0816

The Blob - How Marine Heat Waves Are Causing Unprecedented Climate Chaos 0816

The Biggest Body of Warm Water on Earth Is Getting Even Bigger 0716

Warmer Indian Ocean Could Be 'Ecological Desert', Scientists Warn 0116

The Oceans Are Heating Up Faster than We Thought.  Why That Matters. 0116

Concerns Deepen about a Climate-Change ‘Wild Card’ 0915

Global Warming Is Reversing 1,800 Years of Natural Ocean Cooling 0815

Heat is Piling Up in the Depths of the Indian Ocean 0515

Going with the Flow - Scientists Probe Changes in the East Australian Current 0515

The Gulf Stream System May Already Be Weakening.  That's Not Good. 0315

Deep Mystery - Are the Seas Warming or Cooling? 1014 - As the 2 scientific studies (Durack and JPL), also summarized in the 3 perspectives below, state - for ocean warming below 2,000 meters deep, the warming signal did not rise above the noise.  But for ocean above 2,000 meters, the warming was very substantial.  In fact, it found more warming there (1/4 to 1/2) than previous recent studies did - with the difference concentrated in the Southern hemisphere.

     This means we have seriously underestimated the amount of warming that has occurred in recent years.

Ocean Warming Understimated - 3 Perspectives 1014

Greenland Sea Has Warmed 10 x Faster Than Global Ocean 1113

Global Ocean Heat Content - WEB

Global Ocean Heat Content 0413 - PDF

West Australian Coastal Waters Gripped by Marine Heat Wave 1212

Ocean Heat Gain Since 1993 (summary #1) 0510

Ocean Warming 1993-2008 (summary #2) 0510

Oceans Warmed 50% Faster Than Expected 0608

Warming Deep Seas 0606 - PPT

Ocean Warming - Levitus 0105 - PDF


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Oceans - Sea Level Rise - Past

     Sea level has varied greatly over the course of geological history, from perhaps 400 feet higher than today to ~ 420 feet lower than today.  (Levels far higher than today, very long ago, were augmented by different vertical distribution of land mass, due to many-million year plate tectonic movements.)   Sea level since 35 million years ago has been no more than 240 feet higher than today, but sea level was 400 feet lower than today as recently as 20,000 years ago.

     Worldwide, sea level has risen perhaps 1 inch per century in the last 3,000 years, but perhaps 2 inches per century in the 3,000 years before that.  Local sea level rise varies modestly from the global average - depending on land subsidence, any glacial rebound, and uplift from tectonic plate movements.  Global sea level rose 8 inches during the 20th century.
     In 2011 sea level rise was 13 inches per century.  About 1/2 of that is due to thermal expansion of warmer water.  Melting ice in Greenland and Antarctia contributes almost ~1/4.  ~1/4 comes from glaciers in Asia, North America, Europe, and elsewhere.  ~1/20 comes from mined groundwater.

     From 15,000 to 8,000 years ago, seas rose 1.5 meters (5 feet) per century, 4.5 times today's rate, including 4 meters (14 feet) per century for one 700-year period.

     Over the past half million years, as shown below, sea level changes have followed changes in atmospheric CO2 (and CH4) pretty closely.  The difference between minima and maxima was just over 100 meters, or 340 feet, perhaps even 400.


24 K Years of Sea Levels

During Meltwater Pulse 1A, sea level rose 4+ meters per century, for 7 centuries.

Sea Level Rise, from 500 BC, Spike since 1850 Sea Level Rise since 1850, Esp. since 1990

The Best and Worst Case Scenarios for Sea Level Rise 0623

Pace of Global Sea Level Rise Has Doubled 0523

Seas Have Risen Drastically along Southern U.S. Coast in Past Decade 0423

Warming Seas Carving into Massive Antarctic Glacier Could Trigger Rising Seas 0223

Clue to Rising Sea Levels Lies in DNA of Ancient Octopus 0223

Sea Level Rise Acceleration 0922    - Rate doubled in last 20 years.

China's Sea Levels Touched New High in 2021 - 0522

Antarctic Ice Shelves Are Shattering. How Fast Will Seas Rise? 0322

Inland Mangroves Reveal a Tumultuous Climatic Past and Hint at Our Future 1021

Mediterranean Sea Is Heating 20% Faster than World’s Oceans - WWF 0621

Sea Level Is Rising at Fastest Rate in at Least 2,000 Years 0321

If sea level rise continues accelerating at the pace shown at right up till 2023, seas could rise ~3.5 meters by 2100.

Sea Level Rise from Greenland, Antarctica Ice Melt Matches Worst-Case Scenario 0920

Ancient History of East Antarctic Ice Has Unsettling News for Sea Level Rise 0720

A Puzzling Past Sea Level Rise Might Have Its Missing Piece 0420 - sediments ananlysis indicates melting took place mostly in the ice sheet between Scandinavia and Svalbard, plus some north of Zfinalnd-Karelia.

CO2 Levels at Highest for 3 Million Years – When Seas Were 20 Meters Higher 0419 - take 1 on study

The Last Time CO2 Levels Were This High, Trees Grew at the South Pole 0419 - take 2

Today’s Earth Looks like It Did 115,000 Years Ago, except Massive Sea Level Rise 0219

Ancient Storms Could Have Hurled Huge Boulders, Scientists Say – Raising New Fears of Rising Seas 1017

Study Suggests the Ocean Could Rise More, and Faster, than We Thought 1017

Sea Level Rise Is Accelerating in Florida, Scientists Warn 0717

Sea Level Rise Is Accelerating, with Greenland in Leading Role 0617

Pace of Sea Level Rise Has Nearly Tripled since 1990 - 0517 - Pace had been overestimated for 20th century.

China Blames Climate Change for Record Sea Levels 0317

Ancient Warm Period Hints at Bigger-than-Expected Sea Level Rise 0117
     6 to 9 meters higher than today, at same temperature as today, 125,000 years ago

Antarctic Past Points to Sea Level Threat 0117 - 3 meter rise 14,700 years ago

Methane May Not Last Long in the Air, but It Drives Sea Level Rise for Centuries 0117 - as does CO2

Volcanic Eruptions Masked True Effects of Climate Change on Sea Levels 0816

Better Models of Antarctic Ice Collapse Show Much Faster Sea Level Rise 0416

'Dire Prediction' on Melting Antarctic Ice Sheets and Rising Sea Levels 0416

Climate Forecasts Underestimate Sea-Level-Rise Impact of Antarctic Thaw 0316

Ice Melt Could Make Seas Rise 6 Feet by 2100 - 0316

James Hansen Warns of Much Worse than Expected Sea Level Rise 0316

Sea Level Rise?  Can We Pump Quadrillions of Tons of Seawater 2 Miles High? 0316

Preparing for the Inevitable Sea-Level Rise 0216

20th Century Sea Level Rise Was Fastest in at Least Last 2,700 Years 0216

Downpours over Land Have Slowed Sea Level Rise 0216

Groundwater Depletion Adding to Global Sea-Level Rise 1215

Rising Sea Levels More Dangerous than Thought - NASA 0815 rising faster / sooner than IPCC said

A New Climate-Change Danger Zone? 0715 - ice loss doubling, + slow down & stop ocean circulation

James Hansen Is Getting the Cold Shoulder 0715 - reaction to Hansen study

Prediction of Rapid Sea Level Rise Won’t Change Global Climate Talks 0715 - impact of Hansen study

James Hansen Just Outlined an Alarming Scenario for Our Planet’s Future 0715 - ice loss keeps doubling for years

Ice melt, sea level rise & superstorms - paleoclimate data, climate modeling & modern observations show 2°C global warming is highly dangerous - Hansen et al. 0715 - PDF, 121 pp - multi-meter sea level rise, etc. by 2100 to 2200

Sea Levels Could Rise At Least 20 Feet 0715 - take 1 on study of sea level rise 3, 0.4 and 0.12 million years ago.
     not Hansen

Why Earth’s Past Has Scientists So Worried about Sea Level Rise 0715 - take 2.  Action in Greenland & Antarctica

Sea-Level Rise Accelerating, as Earth's Ice Sheets Melt  0515

Obama’s Trip to Florida Everglades Is a Shrewd Move in Climate Debate 0415

Antarctica's Retreating Ice May Re-Shape Earth 0215

Sea Levels in Northeast Jumped 5 Inches in Just 2 Years 0215

Acceleration in Sea-Level Rise ‘Steeper’ 0115

Sea Level Rise over Past Century Unmatched in 6,000 Years 1014

Note: Atlantic Ocean relative to North Carolina only.  North Carolina coast may have subsided.

             1980                       1990                          2000                         2010

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Sea Level - Future

     At first glance, sea level might rise 65-73 meters (214-240 feet).  61-69 meters come from melting ice: 5-7.5 from Greenland and 3.3-6 from West Antarctica, ~0.5 meters from "mountain" glaciers, and 52-66 from East Antarctica.  (While Wikipedia estimates that Antarctic ice has 70 meters of sea level rise equivalent (SLRE) in water, the USGS in 2013 cut its estimate from 73 to 55.3 meters SLRE, according to Phil Blum at

     4-8 meters comes from sea water's thermal expansion.  Warming the world ocean by 5°C would raise sea level perhaps 4 meters, while 10°C (which prevailed 130-40 million years ago) would raise it 8 meters.  Warming the entire ocean by 5°C would take ~ 2,500 years, at the current heating and expansion rate of 1.6 mm/year.  But it would take less as heating speeds up, with more CO2 in the air.

     However, based on past sea levels over 60 million years, the upper bound on sea level rise is ~75 meters.  Almost enough to make Memphis a seaport.  Burlington and Brattleboro, in Vermont, might become seaports.  98% of New York City would lie beneath the waves.

     The life expectancy for Greenland's ice, based on 1992-2011 ice loss rates, is ~11,000 years.  For West Antarctica, ~29,000 years.  But ice loss rates have continued accelerating.  (Greenland's rate recently rose 7-fold in 17 years, Antarctica’s doubled in 4.)

     Until about 2010, East Antarctica was gaining ice, but more slowly than West Antarctica is losing ice.  More recent data suggest East Antarctica (on the whole, some areas gain, others lose) is losing ice, but the amount is smaller than the uncertainty band.  That is, its % net annual volume change is modest compared to the “noise”.  Modeling suggests that melting all of East Antarctica's ice could take several million years.  But studies of East Antarctic glaciers show that, in recent decades, they receded when temperatures there warmed (Stokes 2013).  Morever, when atmospheric CO2 levels were this high (almost 400 ppm) 4 million years ago (and slightly higher 15-20 million years ago), much higher sea levels indicate that East Antarctica lost 10-40% of its ice (6 to 23 meters of SLRE).  The question is how FAST its ice melts.

     Since the last glacial maximum, sea level rise rates from melting ice peaked at 4 meters per century 14-15,000 years ago (during Meltwater Pulse 1A), or 1+ inch per year.  Temperatures now are rising 30 time as fast as then, but only 1/3 as much ice is left.  It remains to be seen how fast sea level will rise this time.  But sea level rise will accelerate from current levels.  1 inch/year is a reasonable, if high, estimate by 2100: just below the 1.1 inch/year upper bound for 2050-2100 in the draft 2013 US National Climate Assessment (next graph).

     Sea level might rise 5 feet (60 inches) or more by 2100.  See city sea level rise maps below.  A 12-foot rise might well happen by 2200.  A 25-foot rise appears unlikely till after 2300.  But the uncertainty is large.  The dates depend on our emissions and Mother Nature's, plus our success in removing carbon from the air (with some help from Mother Nature).  Our knowledge about the dates also depends on how well we understand ice loss dynamics from Greenland and Antarctica.  We are learning that our models have underestimated some rates and failed to acount for, or inadequately accounted for, some ice dynamics.  (See Ice Dynamics section on Ice page.)

Antarctica Warming Much Faster than Predicted Is Deeply Worrying for Sea Level 0923

Greenland Glacier Discovery Shows Sea Level Projections Are Too Low 0523

Greenland and Antarctic Ice Sheets Are Melting Rapidly, Driving Sea Level Rise 0423

Acceleration of Global Sea Level Rise Imminent past 1.8°C - 0223

Greenland Ice Sheet Set to Raise Sea Levels by Nearly 1 Foot 0822

US Sea Level to Rise as Much in the Next 30 Years as in the Past 100 - Study 0222 - take 2 on study

Coastal Sea Levels in U.S. to Rise a Foot by 2050, Study Confirms 0222 - take 1 on study

Mediterranean Sea Is Heating 20% Faster than World’s Oceans - WWF 0621

Scientists Still Struggle to Pin Down Sea Level Risks Posed by Antarctica 0521 - One study’s ensemble of many models found a median Antarctica SLR contribution of 1.5 incles by 2100, as much snow was added to East Antarctica.  But the stiudy by DeConto el al., including marine ice-cliff instability, found up to 17 inches of SLR from Antarctica by 2100.

Sea Levels Will Rise Faster than Expected, Warns New Study 0221

Sea Level Rise from Greenland, Antarctica Ice Melt Matches Worst-Case Scenario 0920

Sea Levels Could Rise More than a Meter by 2100, Experts Say 0520 - survey of 106 scientists who published at least 6 peer--reviewed papers on the subject in major academic journals

By 2100, Melting from Greenland Alone Could Raise Sea Level 3 or 4 Feet 0819

Can Trillion-Ton Snow Cannons Save Us from Sea-Level Rise? 0719

Rise in Global Sea Levels Could Have ‘Profound Consequences' 0519

Tampa Bay Leaders Should Prepare for Seas to Rise Up to 8.5 Feet by 2100 - 0519

Studies Shed New Light on Antarctica’s Future Contribution to Sea Level Rise 0219

Maryland Sea Level to Rise 1.2 to 4.2 feet by 2100 - 0119

At This Rate, Earth Risks 20 to 30 Feet Higher Seas, Historical Analysis Shows 0918

Geo-Engineer Polar Glaciers to Slow Sea-Level Rise 0318

Actions Today Will Decide Antarctic Ice Sheet Loss and Sea Level Rise 0318

Seas to Rise about 1 Meter, if Climate Goals Are Met, + 20 cm per 5-Year Delay 0218

Sea Level Rise Is Accelerating - 4 Inches Per Decade (or More) by 2100 - 0218

Major Trend of More Snowfall Seen in Antarctica Could Counter Sea Level Rise 0118

Seas May Rise 8 Feet by 2100, Inundating Land That's Home to 236 Million 1217 below, 1250 cm = about 41 feet, while 130 cm = a bit over 4 feet.

Ice Apocalypse 1117 - summary by a leading ice scientist

Study Suggests the Ocean Could Rise More, and Faster, than We Thought 1017

Sea Level Rise Is Accelerating in Florida, Scientists Warn 0717

Rare US Floods to Become the Norm if Emissions Aren't Cut 0617

Scientists Keep Increasing Projections of Sea-Level Increase by 2100 - 0417

Sea Level Rise Could Send U.S. ‘Climate Migrants' Fleeing to Austin, Atlanta 0417

Final Obama Climate Reports Projects Seas to Rise 1 to 8 Feet by 2100 - 0117

New Orleans Will See One of the Highest Sea Level Rises in the World 1116

What It Means for Sea Level When 2 Huge Antarctic Glaciers Are Unstable 1016

Scientists May Have Solved Key Riddle about Antarctica.  It’s Bad News. 0916 - another DeConto-Pollard study

Better Models of Antarctic Ice Collapse Show Much Faster Sea Level Rise 0416 - includes take 3 on DeConto study.

'Dire Prediction' on Melting Antarctic Ice Sheets and Rising Sea Levels 0416 - take 3 on DeConto-Pollard study.

Ice Melt Could Make Seas Rise 6 Feet by 2100 - 0316 - take 1 on DeConto-Pollard study.  40+ feet by 2500 possible

Climate Forecasts Underestimate Sea-Level-Rise Impact of Antarctic Thaw 0316 - take 2.  50+ feet by 2500 possible

James Hansen Warns of Much Worse than Expected Sea Level Rise 0316 - take 2 on study below

We Had All Better Hope These Scientists Are Wrong about Earth’s Future 0316 - take 1 on study below

Ice Melt, Sea Level Rise and Superstorms: Evidence from Paleoclimate Data, Climate Modeling, and Modern Observations that 2°C Global Warming is Dangerous - Hansen et al. 0316  - PDF, 20 pp. - abridgement of the final peer-reviewed publication.  The draft from July 2015 is above, under Sea Level Rise - Past, which informs the projected future, below.
     Cold icemelt from Antarctica spreads out along the ocean surface.  That prevents the vertical mixing (warmer water to the top) there that has driven the great ocean circulation.  In Antarctica, the warmer water below the ice eats away at placiers from underneath.  Cold icemelt from Greenland leads to shutdown of the Atlantic overturning circulation.
     Ice losses from Greenland and Antartica grow, modelled as exponentially, with doubling times of 10, 20, or 40 years.  Sea level rises non-linearly, 5-9 meters over 50 to 150 years.  This is simlar to what happened 120,000 years ago, when sea levels rose from 3-4 meters higher than today to about 9 meters higher, including 2-3 meters within several decades.  (For perspective, the sea level range (maximum - minimum) over the recent ice ages was about 125 meters.)

Preparing for the Inevitable Sea-Level Rise 0216

Sea-Level Rise ‘Could Last Twice as Long as Human History' 0216

Weakening Ice Shelves Raise Sea Level Rise Concerns 0216

Why the U.S. East Coast Could Be a Major ‘Hotspot’ for Rising Seas 0216

Ocean Warming is Making Floods Worse 0116

Hansen 2015 Ice Melt Predictions - PDF

Worst-Case Scenario for Sea Level Rise- No More New York, Berlin or Shanghai 0915

Climate Change and the Fate of Antarctica 0915

Study Predicts All Antarctic Ice to Melt if All Fossil Fuels Are Burned 0915

Seas Will Rise More Around the US, Less Around Antarctica 0115

Pakistan's Coastal Villagers Retreat as Seas Gobble Land 0115

Almost 7,000 UK Properties to Be Sacrificed to Rising Seas 1214

What's Causing How Much of Sea Level Rise 1014

Storm Surge Could Flood NYC 1 in Every 4 Years 0414

How High Will Seas Rise?  Ask the Experts. 1113

Timing a Rise in Sea Level 0813

Sea Level Rise Locking In Quickly, Cities Threatened 0713 

Models Suggest 2.3 Meter (4 LT) Sea-Level Rise per 1°C Warming 0713 (See Figures on Weather, Sea Rise+ page.)  Caveat: paleoclimate studies indicate ~8 meters sea level rise LT per 1°C.

What Sea Level Rise Looks Like for 24 US Cities 0413

What Sea Level Rise Looks Like for 24 US Cities 0413 - WEB

Excerpts:    0 Feet                             +5 Feet                               +12 Feet                                +25 Feet                .             

Maps of Regional Sea Level Rise Variation 0213

Sea Level Rise Making Floods Routine for Coastal Cities 1014

Rising Tide of Discord 0113

Sea Level to Rise Despite More Snow in East Antarctica 1212

Seas to Rise 0.2 - 2.0 Meters by 2100 - NOAA 1212

Sea Level Rise to 2100 - NOAA 1212 - PDF

Paleoclimate Implications for Human-Made Climate Change - Hansen 1212 - PDF, in Springer book

Climate Downgrade- Sea Level Rise 1112

Sea Levels Rising 60% Faster Than IPCC Projections 1112

Sea Level Rise from Polar Ice Quantified 1112 

US East Coast to Be Early Casualty of Rising Seas 0812 

Sea Levels Rose Quickly 14K Years Ago 0612 

2ºC Warming Could Trigger Catastrophic Sea-Level Rise 1211

US Atlantic Sea Levels Rising Fastest in at Least 2000 Years 0611 

Sea Level 10-40 M Higher in Mid-Pliocene (~ 3 Mya) 0411

Indian Ocean Rising 0710 

1.4 Meter Sea Level Rise Likely by 2100 as Antarctic Ice Melts 1209 

15 Million Years Ago Says 380 ppm CO2 => Seas 25+ Meters Higher 1009 

Stern's Bad News from Copenhagen 0309 - sea level rise, food shortages

Seas Will Rise 1 Meter This Century 1008

3.3-3.0 Million Years Ago, Sea Levels Usually +30 to -30 Meters from Today's 1008 - PDF

Sea Level Rise May Be 2x IPCC # 1207

% Area & Pop Less Than 10 Meters Above Sea, World & Regions 0407 - PDF

Sea Level 3 Million Years Ago - Dowsett 1090



GO TO Top. .Overview. .Rain: World. .US. .Seas: Heat. .Level: Past. .Future. .Groundwater. .Hurricanes. .Lakes. .Rivers. .Air.

Oceans - Carbon Sink

CO2 Sinks Fading 1107

100 K Years to Recover from CO2 Spike 1107

N Atlantic CO2 Sink Failing 1007

Oceans - Acidification

The 3 maps (and text) below, about CaCO3 concentrations in the oceans, are from the US EPA.

     "Corals require the combination of temperature, light, and the presence of calcium carbonate, which they use to build skeletons.  As atmospheric CO2 levels rise, some of the excess CO2 dissolves into ocean water, reducing its calcium carbonate saturation.
     "As the maps indicate, calcium carbonate saturation has already been reduced considerably from its pre-industrial level.  Model projections suggets much greater reductions in the future.  The blue dots indicate current coral reefs."  EPA

Plastics Could Be Also Acidifying the Ocean 1022

Arctic Ocean Could Grow Far More Acid than Predicted if Emissions Stay High 0620 - 20% more than previously thought

Ocean Water off US West Coast Acidifying Twice as Fast as Global Average 1219

Acidity in Seas to Reach Levels Not Seen in 14 Million Years 0718

North Atlantic Doubles Carbon Intake 0216

Environmental Change Rate Unprecedented, Study Says 0116

Stop Burning Fossil Fuels Now - There Is No CO2 ‘Technofix', Scientists Warn 0815

Ocean Acidity Rising 10 x Faster Than Ever in 55+ Million Years 1113

Ocean Acidification Threatens to Change Entire Marine Ecosystem 1013

Ocean Chemical Cycles Will Be Upset by Climate Change 0913

Oceans Are Acidifying the Fastest in 300 Million Years 0813

Ocean Acidification Makes Plankton Emit Less Cloud-Seeding Compounds 0813

Ocean Acidification Update 0813

Arctic Ocean Acidifying Rapidly 0513 

Key Experiment Probes a Future Acid Ocean 0513 

Ocean Acidification Accelerated in Nutrient-Rich Areas (Take #1) 0912 

Ocean Acidification Threatens Food Security (Take #2) 0912 

Oceans Are Acidifying Fastest in 300 Million Years 0312 

Oceans 30% More Acid Than 1800 0410 

Rate of Ocean Acidification Fastest in 65 Million Years 0210 

Acid Ocean Thins Marine Shells 0409 

Ocean Is Turning Acidic Fast 0109 

Southern Ocean Acidification to Hit Tipping Point 30 Years Earlier 1108 

Deep Ocean Acidifies 0508 

pH Change of Ocean 0207 

Oceans - Effects on Oxygen & Life

Why Our Oceans Being the Warmest in Recorded History Is So Concerning 0823
     Marine life struggles with heat, its resulting oxygen loss, and acidification.  Coral is especially hard hit.  It also, via the warming-melting effects on Greenland and Antarctic ice, slows down Atlantic Ocean circulation, especially the AMOC and Gulf Stream.  They may collapse by mid-century, slowly and possibly as soon as 2025.  The warming also melts sea ice, a major feedback that further accelerates global warming.

As Ocean Oxygen Levels Dip, Fish Face an Uncertain Future 0523

Climate Change Is Making Crabs Lose Their Sense of Smell 0523

Another Casualty of Climate Change - Dissolved Oxygen 0423

Scientists Build New Atlas of Ocean's Oxygen-Starved Waters 1221

Warmer, Oxygen-Poor Waters Threaten World’s ‘Most Heavily Exploited’ Fish 0122

Marine Oxygen Levels Are the Next Great Casualty of Climate Change 1121

World’s Oceans Are Losing Oxygen Rapidly, Study Finds 1219

The Ocean Is Running Out of Breath 0219

Baltic Sea Oxygen Levels at '1,500-Year Low due to Human Activity' 0718

Oceans Suffocating, as Huge Dead Zones Quadruple since 1950 - 0118

Low Oxygen Levels Getting Worse in Oceans 0118

Breakthrough Could Help Predict a Catastrophic Loss of Ocean Oxygen 0817

Ocean Oxygen Decline Greater than Predicted 0517

Ocean's Oxygen Starts Running Low 0516

Global Warming Could Deplete the Oceans’ Oxygen, with Severe Consequences 0416

     Deoxgenation due to climate change is already detectable in some parts of the ocean.

     New research from NCAR finds that it will likely become widespread between 2030 and 2040.
     Other parts of the ocean, shown in gray, will not have detectable loss of oxygen due to climate change even by 2100.
(Image courtesy Matthew Long, NCAR.)

Failing Phytoplankton, Failing Oxygen - Global Warming Could Suffocate Life on Earth 1215

Scientists Fear Toxic Algae Bloom Spreading on Pacific Coast 0815

Massive Ocean Oxygen Loss from Melting Ice, Warming, 10-17 Millennia Ago 0115

As Climate Warms, More Outbreaks of Disease for Sea Life 1114

Volcanic Vents Model CO2 Acid Future - 30% Biodiversity Loss 0212

Oceans Are Dying 0610

19% of Coral Reefs Gone, Rest Going 2108

Warm Seas Hurt Plankton 1206

Adding CO2 Damages Ocean Life 0706 

Acid Ocean Destroys Diatoms 0406 

Oceans - Circulation & Other

Why Our Oceans Being the Warmest in Recorded History Is So Concerning 0823
     Marine life struggles with heat, its resulting oxygen loss, and acidification.  Coral is especially hard hit.  It also, via the warming-melting effects on Greenland and Antarctic ice, slows down Atlantic Ocean circulation, especially the AMOC and Gulf Stream.  They may collapse by mid-century, slowly and possibly as soon as 2025.  The warming also melts sea ice, a major feedback that further accelerates global warming.

AMOC Changes in a Warmer World

Scientists Detect Signs a Crucial Ocean Current Is near Collapse 0723

Antarctic Deep Ocean Currents Are Slowing Earlier than Predicted 0523

Antarctic Research Sparks Concerns that Ocean Circulation Will Collapse 0423

Acceleration of Global Sea Level Rise Imminent past 1.8°C - 0223

'Blue Blob' near Iceland Could Slow Glacial Melting 0222

Atlantic Ocean Invaded the Arctic Ocean Earlier than Anyone Thought 1121

World’s Strongest Ocean Current Is Gaining Speed due to Global Warming 1121

Critical Atlantic Ocean Circulation May Be Heading for Collapse due to Climate Change 0821 - take 2 on study

Scientists Spot Warning Signs of Gulf Stream Collapse 0821 - take 1 on study

Changes to Giant Ocean Eddies Could Have ‘Devastating Effects’ Globally 0421

Climate Change Is Threatening Our Circulation.  We Must Act Now. 0321

Stronger Evidence of Slowing Atlantic Ocean Circulation 0221

The Oceans Appear to Be Stabilizing Stratified.  Here's Why it's Very Bad News 0920

Changing Patterns of Ocean Salt Levels Give Clues to Extreme Weather on Land 0920

Increased Freshwater in Arctic Ocean Could Affect Global Climate Systems 0820

Fresh Water Is Pouring into the Arctic Ocean.  Climate Change Is to Blame. 0820

What Sub-Arctic Seas Influencing the Arctic Ocean Says about Climate Change 0720

Indian Ocean System Driving Extreme Weather in Australia Likely to Worsen with Global Heating 0320

Climate Change is Pushing Giant Ocean Currents Poleward 0220

Most Ocean Currents Are Speeding Up, a Mega-Scale Result of Climate Change 0220

Melting Sea Ice Is 'Atlantifying' the Arctic 1019

Unabated Bottom Water Warming and Freshening in the South Pacific Ocean 0219

Surprising New Picture of Ocean Circulation Could Have Major Consequences for Climate Science 0119
     more sinking east of Greenland than west of it

'Tipping Point' Risk for Arctic Hotspot 0119

Huge Stretch of Arctic Ocean Is Rapidly Turning into the Atlantic, in Bad News 0618

How Melting Arctic Ice Could Cook the Tropics 0618

Neighboring Seas Are Flowing into a Warming Arctic Ocean 0518

Ireland Could Face ‘Far Colder Winters and Warmer Summers’ 0418

Antarctic Bottom Water Formation Is Slowing, Threatening Ocean Circulation 0418

Avoid Gulf Stream Disruption at All Costs, Scientists Warn 0418

The Oceans’ Circulation Hasn’t Been This Sluggish in 1,000 Years 0418

Fast-Melting Arctic Is Already Messing with the Ocean’s Circulation 0318

Dire Ocean Scenario Is Stark Reminder of Why We Must Stop Climate Change 0318

Cooling Patch in North Atlantic Presages Slowing Ocean Circulation 0817

Climate Change Is Literally Turning the Arctic Ocean Upside Down 0417 - warm salty water below, fresh icy water above

Drastic Cooling in North Atlantic beyond Worst Fears, Scientists Warn 0217

New Studies Show Rex Tillerson Is Wrong about Climate Risks 0117 - One study (below) shows Gulf Strem will slow / stop.

Global Ocean Circulation More Vulnerable to Shutdown than We Thought 0117

Greenland Ice Melt Could Push Atlantic Circulation to Collapse 0117

How Climate Change Could Jam the World's Ocean Circulation 0916

Southern Ocean Is Getting Less Salty.  What That Means for the Rest of Earth 0816

US East Coast Snowstorms Linked to Slowdown of Atlantic Current 0116

Concerns Deepen about a Climate-Change ‘Wild Card’ 0915 - slowdown & stop in global thermohaline circulation

Going with the Flow - Scientists Probe Changes in the East Australian Current 0515

How Tiny Sea Animals Affect Ocean Currents 0914

Desert Dust Feeds Deep Ocean Life 0714

Scientists Warn of 'Deadly Trio' Risk to Ailing Oceans 1013 - acidification, warming, oxygen depletion

Warming Oceans Will Affect the Planet's Poorest 1013

Climate Change Moves Nemo Current to the South 1013

Lower Ocean Salinity Intensifies Rain Extremes 0412

Huge Growing Pool of Arctic Water Could Cool Europe 0112 

World Oceans in Shocking Decline 0611 

80% of Pacific Islands Not Shrinking 0610 

Gulf Stream Is Not Slowing Down 0310

Warming Cuts Ocean Oxygen Content 0508 


GO TO Top. .Overview. .Rain: World. .US. .Seas: Heat. .Level: Past. .Future. .Acid+. .Hurricanes. .Lakes. .Rivers. .Air.

Groundwater - Water Tables

             The Diagram bove suggests how rising seas can cause ground-water to become salty.

     Salinity intrusion is already a severe problem in Bangladesh.

     It is a serious problem in many other countries, including Vietnam, Egypt, Tanzania, Senegal, Micronesia, even Florida and Louisiana.  (See Sea Rise impacts page.)

California’s Groundwater Gold Rush Woes 0423

It’s Not Just Oceans That Are Rising. Groundwater Is, Too. 0323

NASA Is Watching California’s Groundwater Crisis from Space 0422 - Tulare Basin is sinking a foot a year.

A Federal Drought Relief Program Left Southern Oregon Parched 1121

The Ongoing Collapse of the World's Aquifers 0121

Amazon Rainforest Likely Drier, More Fire-Prone This Year 0420  

Groundwater Depletion May Cause Domestic Wells to Dry Out 0719

Water Shortages to Be the Environmental Challenge of the Century, NASA Warns 0518

Climate Change Key Suspect in the Case of India’s Vanishing Groundwater 0317

What You Need to Know About the World's Water Wars 0716

Energy-Water Nexus Issues Heighten in the Face of Climate Change 0716

Groundwater Forum Warns of Severe Drought in South Asia 0616

Europe Is Parched, in a Sign of Times to Come 0915

Scarred Riverbeds and Dead Pistachio Trees in a Parched Iran 1215

Earth's Largest Groundwater Aquifers Are Past ‘Sustainability Tipping Points’ 0615

mm of H2O / yr

   -20    -15    -10     -6      -4       -2      -1        0       2        3       5       10      25  .

below left, from J.S. Famiglietti, “The global groundwater crisis”, Nature Climate Change, Oct. 29, 2014.

     The Canning River flows to Perth.  The Central Valley is California’s.  The Guarani Basin is south of Brasilia, east of Asunción and Santa Fe, west of São Paulo and Curitiba, and north of Montevideo.
     170 mm of water loss from Guarani's Aquifer approximates 200 cu km, 130 mm lost from the US Southern Plains almost 25 cu km, and north China's 170 mm loss since 2004 about 20 cu km.  Northwest India lost 109 cu km from Aug. 2002 to Oct. 2008.

NASA Launches Satellite to Monitor Planet’s Soil Moisture Content 0115

NASA Warns Earth's Fresh Groundwater Reserves Are Disappearing 0115

Kale or Fracking?  Farmers and Corporations Fight It Out for Water 1114

'Shocking' Underground Water Loss in US Drought 0714

In Texas Drought, Abbott Keeps Lawn Green by Drilling 1113

Africa Faces Water Crisis Despite Discovery of Huge Aquifers 1013

Groundwater Wake-Up - Asia, US, etc 0813

Groundwater Depletion in the United States (1900−2008) - USGS / Kownikov 0513 - abstract     "Estimated groundwater depletion in the United States during 1900–2008 totals approximately 1,000 cubic kilometers (km3).  Furthermore, the rate of groundwater depletion has increased markedly since about 1950.  Maximum rates occurred during the most recent period (2000–2008), when the depletion rate averaged almost 25 km per year (compared to 9.2 km3 per year averaged over the 1900–2008 timeframe).”  Or 7.8 km3 per year from 1900 to 2000.  Before 2000-2008, depletion rates were next fastest over 1951-1980, at 15.1 km3) per year (from full study, below).

Groundwater Depletion in the United States (1900−2008) - USGS / Kownikov 0513 - PDF, 75 pp

Latest Casualty of Drought May Be US Aquifers 0513

Ogallala Aquifer in Texas Panhandle Suffers Big Drop 0513

Drop in US Underground Water Levels Has Accelerated 0513

Texas Groundwater Levels Suffer Sharp Drop 0513

Ogalalla Farmers Watching Their Water Use 1012

Groundwater Trends - UNESCO / van der Grun 0712 - PDF, 44 pages
     See 6 excerpts below: 1) world map of abstraction intensity, 2) top 10 abstraction nations, 3) abstraction by continent and use, 4) trends for 8 top depleting nations, 5) trends for aquifers, and 6) trends for countries (mm sea level rise).

*Estimated based on IGRAC (2010), AQUASTAT (n.d.), EUROSTAT (n.d.), Margat (2008) & Siebert et al. (2010).
**Average of the 1995 and 2025 'business as usual scenario' estimates by Alcamo et al. (2003).


Thus, groundwater depletion has accounted for about 5% of the 250 mm in sea level rise since 1900.

Groundwater Changes in California - Kuss 0312 - PDF

This shows a trend of losing 2.6 cu km of groundwater per year in California.

Growing Water Deficit Threatening Grain Harvests 0711

California Water Loss - 30 Cubic Km in 5 Years 1209

Irrigation Depletes India’s Groundwater - 54 Cu Km per Year 0809

     North India's maximum groundwater loss rate is almost 2 inches per year, but much of central California's is 15-45 inches per year, up to 100 inches in one small area.  But the affected area in north India is much larger.

Ground Water Levels in Ogallala Aquifer - USGS 0609 - PDF

Water & Groundwater in China 0308 (image not from article)

            changes from ~1930 to 1997-98 (not 2008)              Gray shows water table at least 40 meters lower than in 1960.




Cross hatching shows 20-40 meters loss.

World's Water Tables Falling Fast 0607






Groundwater - General

America Is Using Up Its Groundwater like There’s No Tomorrow 0823
Falling Water Levels and Crop Yields in Kansas

Dry Springs in Central Texas Warn of Water Shortage Ahead 0823 - Many springs are affected, some of which give rise to town names.

SE UK Faces Early Hosepipe Ban, as Drinking Water Stocks Face Record Demand 0623

How California Is Using Recent Floods to Prepare for Future Drought 0323

Parched California Misses a Chance to Store More Rain Underground 0223

As Colorado River Dries, the U.S. Teeters on the Brink of Larger Water Crisis 0822

U.S. Food Trade Increasingly Leans on Unsustainable Groundwater 0120

Climate Change May Reduce Soil’s Ability to Absorb Water – a Key Store of CO2 - 0919 - more root mass, fewer soil pores

Climate Change Endangers Half the World’s Groundwater Supply 0119

Coping with Seawater Invading South Florida’s Drinking Water Source 0618

How Climate Change Will Mess with Water ‘Recharge’ in Western U.S. 1117

As Global Groundwater Disappears, Rice, Wheat, Other Crops May Start to Vanish 0417

Vital Groundwater Depleted Faster than Ever 0417 - trade in thirsty crops

Africa Droughts Prompt Calls to Start Pumping Untapped Groundwater 0816

What Happens to the Great Plains When the Water's Gone? 0716

Groundwater Depletion Adding to Global Sea-Level Rise 1215

Scarred Riverbeds and Dead Pistachio Trees in a Parched Iran 1215 - country is turning to more desert

New Map of Earth's Groundwater to Help Estimate When It May Run Out 1115

California Could Be the Next Saudi Arabia – of Water 1115

Why Fresh Water Shortages Will Cause the Next Great Global Crisis 0315

The Southwest’s Most Important Number - Vapor Pressure Deficit 0115

Probing the Unknowns of What Warming Does to the Earth's Fertility 0115

California Needs to Overhaul Its Groundwater Protection 0714

Groundwater Pumping Propping Up Farms in California Drought 0714

Water Planners Focus on Bigger Texas, Not a Hotter One 0714

In Drought, Water War in California Fought Underground 0913

With Tar Sands Development (& Fracking), Growing Concern on Water Use 0813 

Shrinking Aquifers in Drought-Stricken Areas 0613

Farm Subsidies Increase Water Use 0613

Rains or Not, India Struggles for Water 0313 

‘Mining’ Groundwater Could Fuel Climate Change 0213

Jakarta Sinking as Water Supplies Dry Up 1212 

Harder Rains in Warmer World May Better Recharge Groundwater 1112 

Pumping Groundwater Raises Sea Level 0512 

Huge Ground Water under Africa 0412

Groundwater Depletion Perilously Accelerates Worldwide 0910 

Kansas Groundwater Acidifies 1108


GO TO Top. .Overview. .Rain: World. .US. .Seas: Heat. .Level: Past. .Future. .Acid+. .Groundwater. .Lakes. .Rivers. .Air.

Hurricanes - General

How a Tropical Storm Turned Overnight into 'Nightmare” Cat. 5 Hurricane Otis 1023

How Hurricanes Keep Earth’s Energy in Balance 0923

Rapid Hurricane-Intensification Risks 0823

Typhoon Mawar (Betty 2) Becomes Most Powerful Storm on Earth in over 2 Years 0523

Cyclone Mocha, North Indian Ocean’s Strongest Storm on Record, Hits Myanmar 0523

Record Long-Lasting Cyclone Freddy Wreaks Havoc in Southern Africa 0323

Hurricane Damage to Rise in Coming Decades, in New Areas. See Where. 0223

Why Atlantic Hurricanes Are Getting Stronger Faster than Other Storms 0922

Hurricane Ian Is No Anomaly. The Climate Crisis Is Making Storms More Powerful 0922

Climate Change Is Causing Hurricanes to Intensify Faster than Ever 0922

Warming Oceans Fuel Earlier Atlantic Hurricane Seasons 0822

Hurricane Numbers Are Decreasing in Every Ocean Basin except North Atlantis 0722

Aerosol Emissions Masked Global Warming’s Supercharging of Tropical Storms 0522

Deaths amid Flooding and Mudslides as Hurricane Agatha Hits Mexico 0522 - Agatha in the Pacific merges with another store to become Tropical Storm Alex in the Atlantic.

NOAA Forecasts 7th Straight Busy Atlantic Hurricane Season 0522

Climate Change Boosted Cost of Japan Storm by $4 Billion 0522

Study Finds Cleaner Air Leads to More Atlantic Hurricanes 0522

Climate Change Fueled Historic 2020 Atlantic Hurricane Season’s Rainfall 0422

Climate Change Made Deadly African Cyclones More Severe 0422

Huge Increase in Catastrophic Hurricanes in Store for Northeastern USA 0222

Tropical Storms, Hurricanes Have Hit US Shores with Unparalleled Frequency 0921 

Climate Change Is Making India’s West Coast More Vulnerable to Cyclones 0921

Climate Change’s ‘Fingerprint’ Seen in Ida Flooding 0921

Hurricane Ida Slammed into Louisiana, Then Didn’t Really Weaken.  Why? 0821

Climate Change Lurks behind Hurricane Ida's Unnerving Intensification Rate 0821

6 Takeaways about Tropical Cyclones and Hurricanes from the New IPCC Report 0821 - 1) More Major (Cat 4 & 5) Tropical Cyclones; 2) Wetter, Windier Tropical Storms; 3) Tropical Storms are Shifting North; 4) More Explosive Growth Tropical Cyclones; 5) Slower Moving Tropical Cyclones that Can Do More Damage,; and 6) How Climate Change Affects Individual Cyclones.

For 7th Straight Year, a Named Storm Forms in Atlantic before Hurricane Season 0521

2020 Tied the Atlantic Record for the Most Major Hurricanes 0521

Atlantic Faces Another Wild Hurricane Season, after Record 2020 - 0421

New Normal for Atlantic Hurricanes to Be More Frequent and Intense Storms 0321

Record-Breaking 2020 Hurricane Season Raises More Climate Change Concerns 1220

Scientists Link Record-Breaking Hurricane Season to Climate Crisis 1120

‘Hurricanes on Steroids’ - Storms’ Explosive Growth Sows New Risks 1120

Final Weeks of Historic Hurricane Season Bring New Storms 1120

Hurricanes Could Reach Farther Inland due to Climate Change 1120  because they hold more moisture

Tropical Storms Can Sometimes ‘Supercharge’ the Storms that Follow 1020

Hurricanes near U.S. Coast Forecast to Worsen, Multiply due to Global Warming 0920

Hurricane Sally Is a Slow-Moving Threat.  Climate Change Might Be Why. 0920

5 Simultaneous Tropical Cyclones Are in the Atlantic, for the 2nd Time Ever 0920

Hurricane Laura’s Rapid Intensification Is a Sign of a Warming Climate 0820

India’s Most Recent Cyclone Highlights a Worrying Future 0820

Hurricane Forecast - ‘One of the Most Active Seasons on Record’ 0820

Forecasters Raise Atlantic Hurricane Outlook to 20 Named Storms 0720

Storm Season Has 3rd-Fastest Start in More Than a Century 0620

This Year May Mark Fastest Start to Hurricane Season Since 1851 - 0620

Mid-Pacific Cyclone Harold Holds Big Warnings for Hurricane Season 0620

NOAA Scientists Predict ‘Busy’ Atlantic Hurricane Season 0520

Global Warming Is Making Hurricanes Stronger 0520

The 2020 Atlantic Hurricane Season Could Break Records 0420

Warmest Oceans on Record Adds to Hurricanes, Wildfires Risks 0420

2019 Was the 4th Straight Busier-than-Normal Hurricane Season 1219

The Most Destructive Hurricanes Are Hitting US More Often 1119

Tropical Storm Intensifies to Category 5 Super Typhoon Hagibis in Just 18 Hours 1019

Hurricanes May Be Reshaping Big Parts of the Ocean 1019
     slows Gulf Stream; churns up nutrients, followed by sinking dead plankton; etc.

Hurricane Lorenzo Hit Category 5 the Farthest Northeast in the Atlantic Record 0919

graph at right: from 0919 articles below

Global Heating Made Hurricane Dorian Bigger, Wetter – and More Deadly 0919

Why Are Hurricanes Like Dorian Stalling?  Is Global Warming Involved? 0919

Climate Change Fills Hurricanes with More Rain, Analysis Shows 0719

Are Hurricanes Getting Stronger?  Is the Climate Crisis to Blame? 0519

Could Global Warming Lead to Quieter Hurricane Seasons?  Yes, with a Caveat 0419

Atlantic Hurricanes Are Strengthening Faster, Mostly due to Climate Change 0219

People - and Cities - Are Making Hurricanes Worse 1118 - asphalt & rougher surfaces

Climate Change is Pushing Tropical Cyclones Poleward 1018

Warm Waters Boosted 2017′s Major Hurricane Tally 0918

Florence’s Flood Waters Could Be 6 Inches Higher, due to Climate Change 0918

Hurricanes Are Lingering Longer.  That Makes Them More Dangerous. 0618

Finding Harvey’s Rains Matched Gulf Evaporation, Scientists Issue Warning 0518

By the End of the Century, Stronger, Slower, and Wetter Hurricanes 0518

Hurricane Season Is Expected to Bring at Least 14 Named Storms in 2018 - 0518

Hurricanes Are Raining Harder and May Be Strengthening Faster, Due to Climate Change 0518

This Is What Happens when the Hurricane Hits Miami in 2037. - 1217

Atlantic Hurricanes' Rapid Growth Spurts Are Intensifying 1217

Climate Change Made Hurricane Harvey's Rainfall Worse, Study Finds 1217

Ophelia, Strongest Eastern Atlantic Hurricane on Record, Roars toward Ireland 1017

Era of Monster Hurricanes Roiling the Atlantic 1017

Huge Rain Was Clear Climate Change Sign in Hurricanes Maria, Irma, and Harvey 0917

Hurricanes - a Perfect Storm of Chance and Climate Change? 0917

Hurricanes Release Energy of 10,000 Nuclear Bombs 0917

Fires, Heat Waves, Hurricanes - Why This Summer's Extreme Weather Is Here to Stay 0917

Twin Mega-Storms Have Scientists Fearing This May Be the New Normal 0917

Texas Sees Harvey’s Damage at Up to $180 Billion 0917

Katrina, Sandy, Harvey - the Climate-Hurricanes Debate Gets Louder and Louder 0817

Future Hurricanes Will Be Worse than Harvey 0817

Did Climate Change Intensify Hurricane Harvey? 0817

Harvey’s Incredible Rains in Southeast Texas; Flood Emergency in Houston 0817

A Texas Newsroom Predicted a Disaster.  Now It’s Close to Coming True. 0817

imagine - 1.5 Million in Evacuation Gridlock as a Hurricane Aims at Tampa Bay 0517

This Is How You Create a Record-Breaking Hurricane 1016

Landfalling Typhoons Have Become More Intense 0916

Winston, Southern Hemisphere’s Strongest Storm on Record, Punishes Fiji 0216

Global Warming Linked to Greater Number of Hurricanes near Hawaii 1115

Cyclone Chapala Hits 155 mph - 2nd Strongest Storm in Arabian Sea History 1015

Historic Hurricane Patricia's Record 200 MPH Winds, Heavy Rains, Landfall 1015

21 Hurricanes and Typhoons in 2015 Shattered the Record 1015

We May Get Hurricanes ‘Unlike Anything You’ve Seen in History’ 0815 - very rare super worst cases

Rising Seas, Storm Surge, Rain Raise Severe Flooding Risk in Biggest US Cities 0715

Sandy Caused Record Sea Levels, $23 Billion Damages in New York State 0715

Hurricanes Are Becoming Fewer -- But More Intense 0515

Experts Tie Hurricane Changes to Climate Change 0515 - above study + others

Hurricanes Come in Bunches and Could Get Stronger 0515

Climate Change Blamed as Vanuatu Recovers from ‘Monster’ Storm 0315

$9.7 Trillion Problem- Cyclones and Climate Change 1014

2013 US Hurricane Season Ends with a Whimper 1013

'Brown Ocean' Can Fuel Tropical Cyclones Inland 0713

Stormier Paradise to Come in Hawaii 0513                                             

Risks Rise of Hurricanes Like Sandy 0113

Extreme Cyclones Linked to Warming Seas 1212 

Extreme Hurricanes Hit US Oftener 1012

below: damage from Hurricane Sandy, New Jersey coast

Air Pollution Intensifies Cyclone Activity 1111 

De-Greening Oceans Decreases Hurricanes 0810 

Hurricanes Most Frequent in 1,000 Years 0809 

More Hurricanes = Fewer Winter Storms 0409 

Mighty Hurricanes Get Mightier 0908 

Warming to Spawn Fewer Hurricanes 0508

Hurricanes Perspective 1107

Cyclones (40 Yrs) Intensify - Huber 0606

Warming & Hurricane $, Insurers Report 0905


More Category 4-5 Hurricanes - Webster 0905

Hurricane Intensity - Webster 0905 - PDF

Hurricanes & Insurance $ 0805




Hurricane Energy Tracks Ocean Temps 0805

Hurricanes: Patterns in Intensity - Emanuel 0805  - PDF

Hurricanes & Warming - Knutson 0705




GO TO Top. .Overview. .Rain: World. .US. .Seas: Heat. .Level: Past . .Future. .Acid+. .Groundwater. .Hurricanes. .Rivers. .Air.


                      Ice Cover Days                                 Summer Surface Water Temperature

∆°F Surface Water Trends for Great Lakes

Ice-Free Days Trends for Great Lakes

Climate Triage Means Some Cold Waters In Warming Great Lakes Won’t Be Saved 1023

Earth’s Highest Navigable Lake, Titicaca, Home to 3 Million People, Is Drying Out 0923

Shrinking Inland Seas Expose Salty Particulates and More 0623

Warming and Drying Climate Puts Many of the World’s Biggest Lakes in Peril 0523

Great Salt Lake Still at High Risk of Disappearing, after Epic Snow 0423

California’s Record Snowpack, Nearly Full Reservoirs after Epic Winter 0323

Largest US Reservoirs Moving in Right Direction - Filling Up 0323, on average, among Earth's lakes and reservoirs

A Great Toxic Dustbowl Could Soon Emerge from the Great Salt Lake 0223

Warming Climate Prompts Harmful Oxygen Loss in Lakes 1222

The Dead Sea Is Dying 1222

Lake Mead at 29% of Capacity, Lake Powell at 24% 1022

The World’s Biggest Source of Clean Energy Is Evaporating Fast 1022

Beavers Are Heat Wave Heroes 0722

Utah’s Great Salt Lake Hits New Historic Low, amid Drought in Western US 0722

California’s Biggest Reservoirs at Critically Low Level, Portending Dry Summer 0622

Lake Mead Continues to Shrink before Our Eyes 0622 - 1,045 feet above sea level as of June 12,

much below 1,057-feet worst-case scenario from August 2021, for June 2022.  Down 5.6 feet in only 3 weeks.

California’s 2 Largest Reservoirs Are 'Critically Low' as Dry Season

Starts 0522

West’s Megadrought Delivers Another Blow - Saving Glen Canyon Dam


Record Low Water Levels Reveal Body in Barrel at Lake Mead 0522

Lake Powell Officials’ Stark Choice in West's Megadrought - Water

or Electricity 0422

Climate Change Has Destroyed This Once Popular Iraq Lake 0422

Lake Mead Hits Unprecedented Low, Exposing an Original Water

Intake Valve 0422

Drought Is Sinking Lake Powell's Water Level.  Its Total Capacity

Is Shrinking Too. 0322

As Planet Warms, Less Ice Is Covering North American Lakes 0322

Iraq’s 2nd Largest Lake Is Drying Up, Turning Up Dead Fish 0222

The Great Lakes are Higher than They’ve Ever Been 0122

Lake Tahoe Water Level Hits 4-Year Low, amid Drought

Great Salt Lake’s Demise Spurs Water Emergency for Utah 1021

1st-Ever Water Cuts Declared for Colorado River in Historic Drought 0821

Lake Powell Hits Record Low Level, in Climate Change-Fueled Water Crisis 0721

Fast-Shrinking Great Salt Lake Poses Rising Hazards 0721

Great Salt Lake Drops to Record Low Levels 0721

Reservoirs Are Drying Up, as Consequences of the Western Drought Worsen 0721

Lakes Are Losing Oxygen—and Their Inhabitants Are in Danger 0621

The Shocking Numbers behind the Lake Mead Drought Crisis 0621

Lake Mead at Hoover Dam to Reach Lowest Water Level since It Filled in 1930s 062

- 1070 feet above sea level, 162 feet below max fill line

Climate Crisis Is Suffocating the World’s Lakes 0621 - Warmer water holds less oxygen (and pther gases).  In some deeper lakes, warmer water at and near the surface (thermal stratification) reduces turnover (mixing with deep waters, often a seasonal phenomenon) that can bring up nutrients.

Cambodia’s Biggest Lake Is Running Dry, Taking Forests and Fish with It 0820

US Great Lake Levels Set Record Highs 0420

Climate Change Could Trigger Drastic Swings in Great Lakes Water Levels 0819

This Year’s Wild, Wet Spring Is Feeding Massive Blobs of Toxic Algae 0719

Climate Change Is Driving Rapid Shifts between High and Low Water Levels in the Great Lakes 0619

Great Lakes Basin Warming Faster than Other Parts of the US 0319

Poor Mixing of Lake Nutrients among Looming Climate Change Impacts 0319

Ancient Flood Stalled Ocean Circulation, Plunging Northern Hemisphere into a Millennium of Glacial Conditions 0718 - from glacial lakes covering much of Canada ~ 11,000 years ago (Younger Dryas), drainginto Arctic Ocean via MacKenzie River

Vanishing Dead Sea 0218

Some of the World's Biggest Lakes Are Drying Up.  Here's Why. 0218

Ecological Catastrophe Turned a Vast Bolivian Lake into a Salt Desert 0118

Why the Great Salt Lake Is Shrinking 1217

Scientists Think They Know Why the Caspian Sea Is Shrinking 0817

Can We Save Our Lakes from Global Warming? 0817

Parched Lanzhou, China Plans to Pipe Water 1,000 Km from Russia’s Lake Baikal 0317

Displaced Refugees Fear More Loss, as Lake Chad Shrinks 1116

Dead Sea Is Drying Out 1116

Utah's Great Salt Lake Is Drying Up at Alarming Rate – Satellites 1116

World’s Longest Lake Is Being Depleted of Life as Waters Warm 0816

Warming at Alarming Rate, Lake Tahoe Reflects Rapid Sierra Climate Change 0716

Lake Mead Declines to Lowest Level in History 0516 - Level rebounded more than 10 feet by early 2018.

Saving Iran's Precious Lake Urmia 0416

El Niño Is Rapidly Filling California's Once-Dusty Reservoirs, Easing Drought 0316

Many of World’s Lakes Are Vanishing.  Some May Be Gone Forever.  0316

Will the Great Salt Lake Be Reduced to Dust? 0216

Rising Lake Temperatures May Worsen Algae Blooms 1215  -   0.61° per decade in world’s 235 largest lakes

Globally, Lakes Warming at an Alarming Rate 1215  - and up to 1.3°F per decade in northern latitudes

Great Lakes Could Face Similar Acidification Risk as the Seas 1215

On Thin Ice - Big Northern Lakes Are Being Rapidly Transformed 1115

Lake Baikal's Water Levels Drop to Record Low 0115

Climate Change Makes It Harder to Save Lake Erie 0914

Southwest Braces as Lake Mead Water Levels Drop 0814

Lake Mead Reservoir Drops to Record Low 0714

Alaska's Arctic Icy Lakes Lose Thickness 0214

With Great Lakes Stuck at Historic Lows, Talk Turns to Adapting 1013

Warming Lake Superior Prompts a Tribe to Try a New Fish 1013

Changing Clarity Reflects Climate Change at Lake Tahoe 0813

As Michigan Warms, Cotton Instead of Cherry and Grapes? 0713








Lake Michigan's Record Low Begins a New Era for Great Lakes? 0713

The red line is Lake Michigan-Huron's average water level since 1918.

Carbon Acidification Could Harm Great Lakes Wildlife 0713

Falling Great Lakes Water Levels Fall Take Toll on Shipping 0613 

Lakes Mead and Powell May Dry Up within Decades 0213

2 Great Lakes Hit Record Low Water 0213

Record Low Water in Lake Michigan 0113

Wisconsin Lakeshore Communities Struggle with Low Water Levels 1212 

Reservoir Lake Effect Can Worsen Local Flooding 1212 

Warming, Variabiity Drive Near-Record Low Water in Great Lakes 1112 

Lake Michigan Water at Record Low 1012


GO TO Top. .Overview. .Rain: World. .US. .Seas: Heat. .Level: Past. .Future. .Acid+. .Groundwater. .Hurricanes. .Lakes. .Air.


from 2013 draft US National Climate Assessment

from Dai's "Rivers Discharge, 1948-2004 - Dai 1108".  It is available below.

     Vobs is the river volume, in cubic kilometers per year, at the station indicated.

      bobs is the trend per year over the 1945-2005 period.  Bold is statistically significant.  Negative is decreasing flow trend.

In Brazil’s Amazon, Rivers Fall to Record Low Levels during Drought 1023

Record-Low Mississippi and Ohio River Levels 1023

Climate Triage Means Some Cold Waters In Warming Great Lakes Won’t Be Saved 1023

Water Levels on the Mississippi River Are Plummeting for 2nd Year in a Row 0923

A Breakthrough Deal to Keep the Colorado River from Going Dry, for Now 0523

The Oceans Are Missing Their Rivers. Dam! 0523  Fertile soils in sediments pile up behind dams.

Satellites Show Climate Change Thinning Rivers, Erasing Glaciers 1122

Shrunken Mississippi River Slows US Food Exports When World Needs Them Most 1122

Battle of the Alps? Water Woes Loom amid Climate Change 1022

How It Looks as Drought Strangles the Mighty Mississippi 1022

The World’s Biggest Source of Clean Energy Is Evaporating Fast 1022

The Mississippi River and Its Tributaries Have Dropped to Record Lows 1022

Drought, Climate Change Are Drying Up North America’s Bodies of Water 1022

Mighty Mississippi Is So Low, People Are Walking to Tower Rock Island 1022

Mississippi Barge Crisis Set to Deepen as Ohio River Now Sees Backups 1022

Could the Drying Up of Europe’s Great Rivers Be the New Normal? 0922

Drifting Toward Disaster - the (2nd) Rio Grande 0922

China’s Record Drought Is Drying Rivers and Feeding Its Coal Habit 0822

The World’s Rivers, Canals, and Reservoirs Are Turning to Dust 0822

China's Fragile Economy Is Being Hammered by Driest Riverbeds since 1865 - 0822

China Drought Causes Yangtze to Dry Up, Sparking Hydropower Shortage 0822

Source of River Thames Dries Out ‘for 1st Time’ during Drought 0822

Europe’s Rhine River Is on the Brink of Effectively Closing 0822

The Vanishing Rio Grande – Warming Takes Its Toll 0622

The Paraná River, South America’s Economic Lifeline, Is Shriveling 0921

60% of World’s Rivers Stop Flowing for at Least One Day a Year 0621

Climate Change Is Altering Rivers around the World 0321

Declining Snow Cover in U.S. Northeast Will Have Major Impacts on Rivers 1120

Australia’s Inland Rivers, Pulse of the Outback, to Be Unrecognizable by 2070 - 0920      darker = more humid

darker = more humid

Thirst Turns to Anger as Australia's Mighty River Runs Dry 1019

Climate Change Has Stolen over a Billion Tons of Water from the Colorado River 0220

The World's Supply of Fresh Water Is in Trouble, as Mountain Ice Vanishes 1219

River Flows All Across the Globe Are Dropping 1019

1st-Ever Mandatory Water Cutbacks to Start Next Year along the Colorado River 0819

Scientists Warn of Lower Water Supply due to Melting Glaciers after 2060 - 1118

'Catastrophic' Floods Rising on Amazon River 0918

'A Hot Drought' - Warming Is Driving Much of the Colorado River's Decline 0918

Rising CO2 Is Affecting Freshwater 3 Times Faster than Saltwater 0118

Ganges under Threat from Climate Change 1017 - retreat of Gangtori glacier, Ganges headwaters, sewage, etc.

China Diverts 10 Billion Cubic Meters of Water to Arid North, in Massive Project 1017

Tagus River, Spain’s Longest, at Risk of Drying Up Completely 0817

How Climate Change Might Affect the Nile 0817

Billion-Dollar Dams Are Making Water Shortages, Not Solving Them 0617

Western Water Crunch Has Climate Change Fingerprints 0417

Thick Ice Formations in Arctic Rivers Are Melting Earlier in Summer 0417

Source of Mekong, Yellow and Yangtze Rivers Drying Up 0317

Congo Risks 50% Power Drop, due to Low Rainfall, Record Low Congo River 0317

Parched Lanzhou, China Plans to Pipe Water 1,000 Km from Russia’s Lake Baikal 0317

Global Warming Is Shrinking Colorado River, Vital to 40 Million People 0217

Wildlife Dying En Masse as South American River Runs Dry 0716

Montana’s Rivers Are Warmer than They Should Be - Bad News for Trout 0716

India to ‘Divert Rivers' to Tackle Drought 0516

Lao Hydro Dam to Seriously Affect Vietnam’s Mekong Delta 1214

Clear Skies Could Empty Rivers 1014

Climate Change Reflected in Altered Missouri River Flow, USGS Says 0814

Rio Grande May Hit 40-Year Low 0414

River Thames Breaks January Records for Water Flows 0214

Could Weakening Winds Threaten Pacific Northwest's Mountain Water Supply? 1213

Ecologists Link Far East Floods to Global Warming 0813

Russia Evacuates 19,000 from Flooded Far East 0813 -  also under Flood Impacts

With Tar Sands Development, Growing Concern on Water Use 0813 - also above under Groundwater

Warming Bad for Life in Freshwater Lakes and Rivers 0613 

Canada's 'Northern Amazon' (Mackenzie) on the Brink 0613 

Climate Change Impact on Stream Flow Varies by Location 0213

     Dai's 1108 graphs below show that flows in the Ganges/Brahmaputra and Mekong Rivers approach zero (8% of peak) during the dry season.  The Indus, Yellow, Salween, and Irawaddy Rivers face similar problems.  All depend heavily on monsoon rains, but during the dry season on meltwater from the Himalayas.  The same can be said, but more weakly, of the Changjiang (Yangtze River).  This makes them vulnerable to running out of water during years when flow is low, or when Himalayn glaciers vanish.

     Flows also are very low (4-8% of peak) in the Yenisey and Lena rivers, but during the frozen season.  Flows change more for the Orinoco River between the rainy and dry seasons than they do for the Amazon.  Flows in the Congo and Parana Rivers are not very sensitive to season, and Amazon flows only somewhat more sensitive.

      Year-to-year variability ranges from 6:1 for the Uruguay River and 3:1 for the Mississippi, Niger and Xi Rivers, to 1.4:1 for the Amazon River.  Years with low water flows in some rivers leave them at risk of running dry.

Mississippi River Drops to 3 Feet 1212

Engineers Clear Rocks from Dried Mississippi 1212

Mississippi River Faces Shipping Freeze as Water Levels Drop 1212 

Water Piped to Denver Could Ease Stress on River 1212

World Rivers Under Siege 1112

Climate Change to Reduce US Southwest Water Supply 0411 

Earth's Water Cycle is Changing Rapidly 1010 

Floods and Mudslides on 3 Continents 0810

Rivers Discharge 1948-2004 - Dai 1108 - PDF

            Below are Dai's graphs showing annual discharge into the world's ocean basins.  Discharge into the Arctic Ocean rose, while into the Pacific and Indian Oceans it fell.

from Changing Northeast Climate - UCS 1006, for Northeast US

River Runoff & Evaporate - Dai 1202 - pdf








GO TO Top. .Overview. .Rain: World. .US. .Seas: Heat. .Level: Past. .Future. .Acid+. .Groundwater. .Hurricanes. .Lakes. .Rivers.


Climate Change in Minnesota - More Heat, More Big Storms 0215

Added Atmospheric Water Vapor Adding to Global Warming 0714

How Australia's Big Wet Befuddled Scientists 0813

Water Vapor Does 2/3 of Warming 1108

When It Rains, It Pours - Madsen 1207 - PDF 

Water in Air - Santer 0907 - PDF